The electron, proton, photon, muonic and tau-neutrino is represented by complex particles consisting, finally, from an electronic neutrino.
Concerning the sizes of particles official physics has tangled finally. It martyred of an extremes - zero points («singularities») both perpetuities. The zero points and perpetuities are connected mathematically, for example, at the zero size of an electron the energy of its electrostatic field is indefinitely great. However, physically they of any connection among themselves have not since anywhere in the Nature do not exist. The originating of zero point or perpetuity means originating an irresolvable paradox and demonstrates an inaccuracy of those notions on the basis of which one there was this paradox. The good illustration said can be served with a well known religious paradox: «If the God all-powerful and almighty, he can create such rock, which one to raise can not». If not can create such rock, therefore, not almighty, and if will create, but can not raise - means not all-powerful. Apparently, that to a paradox result two perpetuities: «all-powerful» and «almighty», therefore they are erratic, but such God to nobody is necessary. Here it is interesting to mark, that as against the virtual God, the substantial man is capable easily to permit a described paradox, by creating a huge concrete rock, which one cannot be raised by arms, but it is easy to raise with the help of mechanisms. Nevertheless, conclusion from here does not follow, that the man all-powerful and almighty, though he in many respects and has outmarched the God, fictionaled by him. The man can see atoms and far galaxies, has created a wheel, which one is not known in the Nature, can be moved in water, on water, on ground and by air is much faster than any other living creature, can see and to talk apart of thousand kilometers from each other and much, much another, all to not enumerate, but always there will be something, that the man can not.
Thus, any mentions in the scientific literature on zero points (singularities) and perpetuities demonstrate falsehood of initial positions of a in question problem.
From set up we shall see, that by electronic neutrino was exhausted not only electron, but also in general matter. Nay, how it will be clear from further, matter does not exist as substance and field, but only as a field, the most convincing evidence that is served capacity to interpenetration of particles brightly shown in smoothly varying transition from corpuscular to wave properties of photons with decreasing of their frequency. To the interchange mechanism of interplay in the set up theory was not found places. As the consequent it is necessary to reject and "virtual" particles and "vacuum, boiling by virtual particles," and quantum physics as a whole, grounded on a mathematical model as a Schrodinger equation being anything to diverse, as "by adjustment under the answer", especially successful, that enables only some individual solutions, i.e. does not enable substantial check.
In our world the energy of Big Bang is step-by-step transformed into substance and, similar, that it is enough of reserves for this purpose in the Universe still, since the number of photons in 109 times exceeds number of nucleons and accounts to the scientists, the free neutrino still as much, and range of their energies is very great.
"This particle can pass through all strata of the Earth, having zero-access small chances to impact with something on a path. At all events, it correctly for energies, with which one the neutrino is released at -decay. ...Subsequently has appeared, that at high energies interplay the neutrino with substance strongly increases, therefore neutrino... It is possible to watch comparatively easily". Fundamental structure of a matter, "World", М., 1984, page 82.
In a figure borrowed from that of a source (page 146) the experimental data of interplay a neutrino with substance are shown, from which one it is visible, that this interplay grows linearly with increase of energy a neutrino. Just such increase of mass the neutrino guesses new physics. I have afforded in a figure to add values of electric charges a neutrino to point out, that the neutrino, having negative electric charge, interacts with positively charged nuclei of elements of substance rather stronger, than positively charged antineutrino. Apparently, that at very large energies a neutrino both straight lines in a figure should to merge in one, since the charge a neutrino any more will not be essential to influence cross-section of interplay is directly it is visible on arrangement of experimental points, though the scientists have conducted straight lines parallel each other.
The neutrino has gravitational and electric charge, the gravitational charge grows synchrony with increase of energy a neutrino, thus the size the neutrino decreases, its density is augmented. If to take into account and that circumstance, that the neutrino has not any more components, it suggests that a neutrino and antineutrino represent formations, in which one the field form of a matter "passes" in substantial. In them gravitational and electrical field are indissoluble, and in ambient space the operating electrostatic and gravitational field, as different substances is provided. Mechanism of a long-range action remains by a riddle (see chapter "Charges and fields"), a key to which one can be appearance gravidynamic and magnetic field at motion of charges and appearance of force of the Lorentz. At all events, any distortings of space can not arouse appearance of the operational force, and the figurative matchings as sagging of a sheet on which one are arranged massive bodies though are obvious, but can not by an adequate image mirror an actuality, since guess original presence of forces. As in old kind times it is better to consider space as container of things.
Carrier of energy of exited states in a world of microparticles is the photon, simultaneously being and mysterious graviton. Basically, it is interesting to observe destiny of a photon having ever less and less energy (further we find out, how the photon can "to grow old"). Thus a neutrino and antineutrino component a photon, are augmented in the sizes, radius of a photon is augmented, mass a neutrino and antineutrino decreases (in the whole photon electro neutral), radius and step of screw motion of a photon is augmented. More in detail about properties of a photon we look below.
The change of a magnetic field causes not change of an electrical field, and the displacement of electric charges and gravitational charges, inextricably related with them, under operating of force of the Lorentz exhibited, as an electrical field of induction, but actually those misses. Therefore change of a magnetic field causes as a matter of fact change of a gravidynamic field and on the contrary. It does not mean, that now in Maxwell equations for an electromagnetic field we should substitute parameters of a gravidynamic field (by the way, thus the equations will become symmetrical). That we consider with an electromagnetic field represents photons, about motion and properties which one later we shall talk more in detail. The modified Maxwell equations are indispensable for "photons" with a wavelength more than 1 mm and about it too still we shall conduct speech.
Now we can understand, than the electronic neutrino differs from an antineutrino. Esteeming operating of force of the Lorentz on electric charge a neutrino and antineutrino, we see (figure 7.1.1), that it acts in such a manner that the neutrino and antineutrino results in the extension.
For the coordination with the observed facts, it is necessary to admit, that the antineutrino has greater density, than the neutrino and pursuant to it, at the same parameters of motion, creates a gravidynamic field with the greater value of induction, that results in strengthening of gravidynamic interplay. Therefore positron should have radius of a little bit smaller electron and to be little bit stronger than it, then the proton should be much stronger than antiproton, than and the skew in the side of preferential formation of protons is conditioned, and preferential formation of electrons (since an antiproton "to create" it does not pay because of impossibility of coexisting with protons) is by a consequent of this process for maintenance of a common electro neutrality in view of identical quantity the neutrino and antineutrino. It provides a minimum of potential energy of the Universe as a whole.
For the answer to a problem: why so the neutrino differs from an antineutrino, we shall consider in the beginning abstract image of a centrally symmetric gravitation - electrical field without gravitational and electric charge, which one should be in center. Let's begin to gyrate this field around of an axis passing through center. On some spacing interval from rotation axis we always shall find out area, in which one field should move with light speed. It is uneasy to show, that this area will represent the thin-wall barrel, the axis which one coincides rotation axis. In this barrel all also will be massed gravitational and electric charge, and the surface density of charges will be inversely proportional to the sum X2 + R2, where X - spacing interval on generatrix of the barrel from a normal to center, and R - radius of the barrel. 90 % of value of charges will be massed apart XR, thus density of charges on this segment is almost constant so, that the speech goes, practically, about a cylindrical ring of width 2R. This barrel also will be a visual image a neutrino and antineutrino. Naturally, that at increase of energy of rotation, radius of the barrel decreases the same as also its effective length, that completely corresponds to earlier described properties a neutrino. The frequency of proper rotation a neutrino in an electron makes 6.08×1024 sec-1. In all figures relating to the image a neutrino in particles, the circumferences correspond to cross section a neutrino. On a figure 7.1.2 the
neutrino and antineutrino is figured.
They differ from each other by that the magnetic induction vectors Be and of gravidynamic induction Bm for a neutrino are directed to the counter sides, and for an antineutrino - in one side. Thus, these particles are asymmetric also any transformations can not one of particles turn into another, except for a reverse sign of a charge, which one too is impossible. Therefore these particles can not be converted each other but only to be born by twos and annihilations that, in effect, is the basis of an energy conservation law.
The concept about antiparticles is entered formally and goes from an equation of the Dirac. The relativistic formula for connection of energy with a impulse of a free particle:
is outcome of two expressions: and E=mc2. From (7.1.1) extract the root to find energy. Thus two values of energy are formally received: positive and negative, on the basis of that enter at the end concept about a positron. Here again by way jugglery by mathematics receive that is necessary, not caring about physical sense it jugglery: at a conclusion (7.1.1) to square expression for energy, and then extract from it square root. Let's take a certain value А. We shall it in to square and then we shall extract square root - formally we shall receive two values А and both they are valid. As under A it is possible to imply everything, reading this strings can not doubt, that he necessarily has double with opposite sign. The fallaciousness such the logic is obvious. For new physics the existence of antiparticles is apparent - at symmetrical replacement all a neutrino on an antineutrino and on the contrary we shall receive "antiparticle" from "particle" or on the contrary. If at such replacement of a new particle it is impossible, this particle has not an antipode.
Returning to a problem of "anti substance" and "anti-world" now it is possible to assert, that the substance always only one and anti substance does not exist; there is only miscellaneous sign of electric charge of this substance. The balance of a world and anti-world is as a matter of fact balance of electric charges and it is possible to reason only about electronic - proton or energetically less expedient positron - antiproton a world. Apparently, that electronic - positron, proton - antiproton a world to exist can not, since the minimum of potential energy in such world cannot be reached because of an annihilation of particles. By it the problem on "anti-world" is depleted.
As in our reasons. the substantial matter was depleted a neutrino, and the neutrino - rotated electro-gravitational field, will which one as a result of rotation forms mass and electric charge and, simultaneously, a magneto-gravidynamic field, there is a sense to assert, that this by four kinds of fields deplete all universe, and attempt to aggregate them in one field is absurd, while we do not learn an essence of fields.
As it will be visible from the subsequent analysis of properties and features of motion of photons, in any equations, the similar Maxwell equations in general do not have any necessity for photons with a wavelength shorter 1 mm. Allowing an intercoupling magnetic and gravidynamic of magnetic and gravidynamic fields on carriers of a field, we can reach a conclusion, esteeming a figure 7.1.2, that for an antineutrino the vector Вm is a little more, than same vector for a neutrino, therefore antineutrino will forms more strong a gravidynamic field.
Now, having before eyes an image a "living" neutrino, we can answer one of major problems - about the mechanism quantumness of an own moment of momentum a neutrino. From a figure 7.1.2 it is visible, that nothing hinders a free neutrino (or antineutrino) to merge with each other provided that the small barrier of electrostatic and magnetic repulsing between them will be overcome and the sizes of barrels will be strictly identical (the energy and mechanical moment is identical). In other words, the neutrino with double energy and double mechanical moment will be formed only from a completely identical initial neutrino. The sense quantumness of an own mechanical moment a neutrino consists of it. By addressing now in the applicable chapters to quantum conditions of a building material of planets of a solar System determining the same conditions and planets, we can make a common conclusion that the bodies to identical lengths of de Broglie waves stick together among themselves, that it is possible to interpret, as an interference of these waves. It is time to make one more world outlook conclusion: the neutrino, and, therefore, and any particles is absolute interpenetrative, "substance" in them is not present, but only the field form of a matter, and the fields are capable to dive each other unrestrictedly (principle of superposition of fields), all problem only in, whether the energy suffices to overcome a long-range action of fields. If the energy has enough, the passing of particles is through each other ensured, if energy does not suffice, we feel "bead", which one actually is not present. This conclusion is useful to us for exact comprehension of photons properties.
The famous formula of the Einstein E=mC2 from the point of view of above-stated does not mirror a total energy of a body, and demonstrates only energy of motion of a body on a screw line. To receive a total energy, in it is necessary to add energy of proper rotation the neutrino (body), energy of orbital motion a neutrino in "elementary" particles, and also energy on formation electrical, gravitational, magnetic and of a gravidynamic field a neutrino. Therefore the formula E=mC2 fair for processes which are not encompassing change of proper rotation a neutrino about the its axis will be more precise. In a record E=mC2 the formula of the Einstein has simple physical sense of the sum of kinetic energy on coils of a screw line mC2/2 and translational motion mC2/2.
For a photon the formula E=mC2 will be most exact, since component a photon a neutrino and antineutrino interact only electrostatic. From it is easy to receive the known formula for a photon E=h, where h - the constant of the Planck, and - frequency of a photon. For this purpose we shall record an angular momentum of a photon:
where mph - mass of a photon.
The wavelength of a photon is peer to a circumference of cross section of a screw trajectory:
By multiplying and by sectioning a right part (7.1.2) on 2, with the registration (7.1.3) and known ratio =h/2 and =с/, we shall receive E=h.
If to take into account, that the angular momentum a free neutrino in 2×137.0391 times is less than an angular momentum of a photon, that, by conducting the similar calculations for a neutrino, we shall receive:
i.e. at the same energy the frequency a neutrino should be, approximately, in 270 times more frequency of a photon, accordingly, and mass a neutrino in as much time is less than mass of a photon of the same frequency. The following useful rule is simultaneously received - product of a particle mass on its "wavelength" there is a value a constant: m= const. For a neutrino const = 8.0627×10-40 g×cm. For particles moved with speeds of light and having a moment from the de Broglie formula const = h/c = 2.21022×10-42 g×cm.
Here will pertinent find some useful ratio for a neutrino. An angular momentum a neutrino in an electron (1), where - fine structure constant. Same this moment will be and for a free neutrino: S=mcr (2), where m - mass a neutrino, c - speed of light, and r - radius of a screw trajectory. On the other hand, apparently, that energy a neutrino W=mc2, whence m=W/c2 (3). By substituting (1) and (3) in (2), we shall discover: (4). It is known (B.M. Javorsky, A.A. Detlaph, Course of physics, v.3, "Higher School", М., 1967, page 333), that (5), where е - elementary charge. By substituting (5) in (4), we shall discover (6), accordingly "wavelength" a neutrino: (7). Radius the neutrino is possible to find similarly, how find classic radius of an electron: (8). Allowing, that a charge the neutrino is peer е/2 and substituting in (8): (9). As mc2 is an energy a neutrino W, comparing (9) with (6) we shall discover, that radius the free neutrino makes half of radius of a screw trajectory it.
All described features of motion and the interplays of charges give us clear outlooks for hooking up of the mathematical apparatus so that the common sense again has not appeared in a captivity of this powerful tool. Some delicacies we have missed out from consideration. For example, it is possible to show, that for a neutrino driving on orbit, the rotating axis is inclined to orbital plane similarly, how we it is observed for planets. This slope is "remainder" of motion a free neutrino on a screw line. We nor esteemed bound with this slope of precessional movements, this problem will be reviewed at arguing polarization of light.
Comments of the author to chapter 7.1:
1. Matter and antimatter.
In this chapter we have found out, that elementary brick of matter the electronic neutrino with negative electric charge -0,5 is, and elementary brick of an antimatter the electronic antineutrino with positive electric charge + 0,5 is. Therefore, electron consisting of two neutrinos is necessary to attribute to matter, and positron consisting of two antineutrinos - to an antimatter. The formula of mass - energy equivalence E = mc2 (1) multiply is affirmed experimentally. In chapter 7.3.1 and comments of the author to this chapter sense of this equivalence explicitly is uncovered. Expending definite energy on formation of a pair an electron - positron, we receive equivalent quantity of arising mass. To any energy on formation of electric charges of these particles does not remain, i.e. it is not expended. Therefore, the electrostatic field has not mass and energy, therefore is diffused with indefinitely by a high speed, and the orthodox notions here are incorrect. Thus, the sense of electric charge is, what is it as though certificate of conformity to matter or antimatter, their passport or, if want, birth certificate which is not requiring of additionally energy. Here it is necessary to add, that the neutral particles contain identical number a neutrino and antineutrino (neutral pion, photon), i.e. it is simultaneous matter and antimatter, and the charged particles can contain miscellaneous number a neutrino here again there is a terminological tangle. For example, the proton has a positive charge at the expense of four antineutrinos, in spite of the fact that two neutrinoes have also. Therefore it is more correct it to call as an antimatter, while an antiproton - matter. That most concerns and to a neutron. Though it has not electric charge, but mass of an orbital electron, keeping in it, is significant less central proton, therefore neutron also is logical to attribute on mass to an antimatter. I shall remind to the reader, that quantity of matter, ambient us, and antimatters is identical (by quantity a neutrino), but on mass the antimatter considerably exceeds matter because of protons. The gravidynamic interplay of matter and antimatter explicitly is parsed in the conforming chapters. But their gravitational interaction should be detected experimentally. Is shown, that the thermal neutron «drops» in a gravitational field of the Earth pursuant to a law of universal gravitation because of attraction of an antimatter to an antimatter. But whether the matter is attracted to the Earth, nobody checked up, and it could be noted on a vertical deflection of an electron beam in a circular accelerator of particles. If the fascicle deviates to the Earth, the gravitational interaction of matter with an antimatter is subject to a law of universal gravitation. If the fascicle deviates in the counter party, the representatives heteromatter gravitationally are repulsed from each other (compare behavior homomatter and heteromatter at gravidynamic interplay).
2. Electronic neutrino in particles and decomposition products.
Separate unconnected by gravidynamic in a particle (electron, proton etc) electronic neutrino or antineutrino can not go into a structure of particles on three causes: 1. The sizes separate a neutrino are much more than the sizes of fundamental particles, and the gravidynamic connection with the neighbours practically misses, i.e. there is nothing to retain a neutrino in a structure of a particle. 2. The neutrino could with other a neutrino forms an electron (or positron for an antineutrino), but in this case separate the neutrino in a structure of particles disappears. 3. If a neutrino with an antineutrino will forms a photon, it in general escapes a fundamental particle, since only at parallel motion of a matter and antimatter the gravidynamic connection is possible, otherwise at counter motion inside a particle the photon will not be formed.
Decay of a neutron on reacting: n P+ + e- + at a stringent congruence with the law of conservation of energy contradicts law of conservation of charge if to consider value of a charge an electronic antineutrino equal + 0,5. On the other hand, the figure in the beginning of this chapter uniquely indicates, that the electronic neutrino is negatively charged, and antineutrino - positively.
Two versions of elimination of this inconsistency are possible. Version 1: my high son considers possible, that the decay of a neutron occurs to radiation separate a neutrino and antineutrino (analyzed photon), instead of one an antineutrino. The basis can be served by exclusive difficulty of detection a neutrino. Version 2: Apparently, in similar processes is possible not preservation of electric charge. The basis can be served by existence separate a neutrino and antineutrino in space. Besides official physics till now does not perceive the causes of originating of electric charges.
With what from these versions will be realised actually can show only experiment. Let's wait. If radiations an electronic neutrino together with radiation the electronic antineutrino at decay of a neutron will not be revealed, we can make one more interesting conclusion, that at transition of a microsystem in a stable state can be beamed not only photons, but also them « halfs» - electronic neutrino or antineutrino.
In chapter 7.1 the parameters a neutrino are found. In particular is shown, that radius the free neutrino makes half of radius of its screw trajectory. The free neutrino with energy 1 eV and cross-section of its screw trajectory is shown on a figure 220.127.116.11 (under the formula (4) chapter 7.1). Alongside for matching shown by a red point atom of hydrogen in a ground state which one in 13.6 times less neutrino. At energy a neutrino 13.6 eV its size is peer to the size of atom of hydrogen.
Thus, neutrino (and the photons) with low energy can be largest on the sizes elementary particles in a microcosmos. That the size a neutrino has become to the equal size of an electron, its energy should make half of rest energy of an electron (0.255 MeV). If to take into account and that circumstance, that the neutrino has only half of elementary electric charge, becomes apparent, that it cannot be found out. At passing through matter the neutrino is not capable it to ionize since electrostatic intensity on its boundary is minute, and inside neutrino of a field misses. The neutrino is not capable to leave at all after itself a polarization track, as it is made by photons, therefore it has an extremely high penetrating power. It seems, that by an alone capability of detection the neutrino with low energy is usage of rydberg atoms (see chapter 13.5).
The occurrence of lasers has made possible multiphoton radiation absorption by atoms. Thus the atom has no time to remove the previous exited state, as again absorbs a photon. In outcome the electron of atom accumulatives aliquot value of a moment , radius of its orbit is augmented proportionally n2, as a consequent, the energy levels of atom are inspissated far from a ground state and the electron-binding energy with atom at n = 1000 becomes equal 10-5 eV (N.B. Delone. Rydberg atoms. Soros Educational Journal, № 4, 1998, page 64). For matching, mean energy of atoms of gas at room temperature in one thousand times more. Therefore rydberg atoms are ionized at slightest effect on them (even by long wave radiation). Allowing, that rydberg atoms are metastable also have a mean time of life about 10 sec before spontaneously to pass into a ground state, their usage for detection a neutrino with low energy is represented ideal. A neutrino, despite of minor electrostatic interplay, are capable to ionize rydberg atoms. For detection a neutrino with minimum energy, apparently, the extreme low temperatures and extreme high vacuum in a system are indispensable. That circumstance is very convenient, that by multiphoton occluding it is easy to receive atom in a desirable degree of excitation (at definite n). Therefore there is a principled capability to find out a neutrino not only on ionization of rydberg atoms, but also to locate position tracks a neutrino and photons even in an expansion chamber. Naturally, that thus the electron-binding energy in atom should be comparable to energy of heat motion of molecules of gas or liquid in an expansion chamber or more it. Thus, with the help of rydberg atoms the detection a neutrino in a broad band of their energies is possible.
Own mechanical moment of an electron it is a lot of less its orbital moment or equal to it of the moment of a mobile electron on coils of a screw line. From an experimental data it is possible to suspect, that the own mechanical moment of an electron is less than its orbital moment in 1/ = 137.0391 times, where - fine structure constant. Almost same value (137.05) we shall receive, by sectioning a magneton of the Bohr on a magnetic moment obtained from (4.4), by substituting in it classic radius of an electron, since the magnetic moment is a consequent of a mechanical moment electrically charged particle (elaborations will follow below).
The same own mechanical moment («informal» spin) electron we shall receive, allowing, that at any level in atom of Hydrogenium including in a ground state the electron is gone with «by the first solar escape velocity» concerning a nucleus, the ratio of this speed to speed of light is equal to a fine structure constant 1¤137,0371. The interplay of the own moment of an electron with the orbital moment also is exhibited as thin structure of spectral lines.
Already it is possible to anticipate (in further it will be confirmed), that an electron (the figure 7.2.1) represents an electronic neutrinos, rotated around of common center, and the positron, accordingly, antineutrinos, that is determined by gravidynamic interplay and is confirmed by presence of an own moment of momentum.
Mass ne in an electron we shall consider to an equal half of electronic mass in the supposition, that mass a free neutrino is very small . The mechanical moment, coming on one a neutrino, will be twice less own moment of an electron: . By substituting these values in (4.8), we shall discover radius of an electron and positron (concerning a positron of elaborations will follow below):
= 2.81785 fm (7.2.1),
which one coincides classic radius of an electron:
r0= 2.81785±0.00004 fm.
Thus, we have confirmed, that radius of an electron and positron in a free condition is peer to classic radius, and it was made by a completely independent way.
Classic radius of an electron can be found and analytically, outgoing from a moment of momentum of a mobile electron equal (but not /2). Apparently, that an angular momentum of a mobile electron at motion on a screw line in 1/ ( - fine structure constant) times more own angular momentum of an electron: S=m0Cr0, where m0 - rest-mass of an electron, C - speed of light, r0 - classic radius of an electron. Thus, it is possible to record: , whence , where e - elementary charge.
In connection with all previous presentation it is possible completely unhesitatingly to assert, that mass a free neutrino is different from zero point, though it can and not have "rest-mass", i.e. always is gone with speed of light. Otherwise any of a gravidynamic field it to create can not, therefore, can not go into a structure of particles that contradicts to the experimental facts, for example, the decay of a neutron. "If the neutron originally was in rest, its impulse should be peer to zero point; however measured impulses formed at its decay of a proton and electron in the sum does not give zero point". R. Sproul, "Modern Physics", "Science", М., 1974, page 490. This fact indicates that formed at decay of a neutron the antineutrino has an impulse, i.e. mass and speed.
"The experimental curves demonstrate, that mn/m0
mass a neutrino, and m0 - electronic mass - V.K.) is close
zero point, but is not equal to it". N.I. Kariakin etc., "Brief
reference book on physics",
"We do not know, for what reason of masses neutrinos should strictly equal to zero point and our today's notions speak faster that they are different from zero point". And at the end of the same paragraph: "The modern theories of Great association for fundamental interplays go further away, guessing, that the masses a neutrinos can have values of the order 1 eV". Fundamental structure of the matter, "World", М., 1984, page 216.
Mechanical moment a free neutrino, as it is visible from a constitution of an electron is peer . From the formula (4.11) is easy to find "rest-mass" the free electronic neutrino. As for a relativistic case the particle mass is inversely proportional to radius of its orbit: , where r - radius of a screw trajectory a free neutrino. For a spectral line of hydrogen = 6562.784×10-8 cm = 1044.499×10-8 cm.
Then = 0.510999×106× 2.81785×10-13/2×1044.499×10-8 = 6.893×10-3 eV.
For the free neutrino can be any energy and, accordingly, mass. It is possible to be convinced of it, by reading below about teleportation of a photon.
Let's consider two experiments, which one orthodox physics considers as the evidence of rightness of the views concerning a spin and magnetic moment of an electron, and new physics sees in these experiments endorsement its of the notions.
Experiment Stern and Gerlach. The bundle of atoms of hydrogen in vacuum in an inhomogeneous magnetic field created across a traffic route of atoms is slivered on two bundles. The calculation demonstrates that the value of cleavage corresponds to a magnetic moment of atom, equal magneton of the Bohr.
The magnetic moment of atom of hydrogen will be peer to a magneton of
the Bohr (formula 4.6), as the mechanical angular momentum both free, and bound
in atom of hydrogen of an electron is peer . Therefore in an
inhomogeneous magnetic field the bundle of atoms of hydrogen will be slivered
on two: one with a magnetic moment, directional on a field, and another -
against a field. Orthodox physics makes opposite conclusions of this
experiment. "As for atoms of hydrogen in a ground state at n=1
orbital quantum number l=0, the orbital magnetic moment in this case
misses. Therefore, the cleavage is explained to that the magnetic moment of
atom as a whole is conditioned by an own magnetic moment of an electron. It is
confirmed as well by that pursuant to two possible projections of a spin to a
direction of intensity magnetic field the cleavage on two bundles is received.
If the cleavage was caused by an orbital magnetic moment, the bundle should be
splitted on odd number of bundles pursuant to possible number of projections of
an orbital moment of momentum on a direction of intensity magnetic field, equal
2l+1". G.E. Pustovalov, "Atomic and nuclear physics".
Publishing House of the
The magnetic moment should be peer to half of magneton of the Bohr, since official physics receives an own angular momentum of an electron (spin) equal /2. Nevertheless, for explanation of the experimental facts official physics considers (hypothesis of Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck), that the value of an own magnetic moment of an electron is peer to a magneton of the Bohr. Ratio it to a spin they tender to make twice more, than it should be under the formula for a charge е in mass m driving on any orbit, i.e. , where МS - an own mechanical moment of an electron. Thus, the hypothesis of Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck is apparent outrage of common sense in a name of saving of a half-integer spin and quantum mechanics as a whole.
In experiments Stern and Gerlach the magnetic moment of an electron would need to be determined directly, skipping an electron beam through an inhomogeneous magnetic field and to indemnify arising force of the Lorentz by electrostatic field declinatory electrons in other side. Thus it would be possible to watch also bifurcation of an electronic beam pursuant to a magnetic moment of an electron, equal magneton of the Bohr, more precisely, equal 1.0072971, since the electron "thermal" and its magnetic moment on a screw trajectory is completely sum up with an own magnetic moment. Radius and step of a screw trajectory of such electron considerably exceed radius of orbit of an electron in atom, therefore deviation in an inhomogeneous magnetic field should be more, than for atoms. From the point of view of official physics any the deviation of an electron beam should not originate (if the force of the Lorentz is precisely balanced electrostatic) as the sizes of an electron are very small also discontinuity of a field compared on the sizes to an electron is impossible to create. The positive outcome of such experiment will be to straight lines endorsement of motion of microparticles on a screw line.
Experiment of the Einstein and de Haas. These explorers watched twisting at magnetization reversal of an iron rod hanged on a thin thread. The official explanation of experiment is those: "At magnetization reversal elementary magnet in a rod change direction the magnetic moments on opposite. Thus change the direction and their moments of momentum. As the full moment of momentum of a rod thus should remain a constant, the rod comes in rotation. The outcomes of experiment demonstrate, at first, presence of a moment of momentum for elementary magnet and, secondly, that the ratio of their magnetic moments to moments of momentum is determined by the formula: i.e. same, as for electrons. Thus, from this experiment follows, that the ferromagnetism is conditioned not by orbital motion of electrons ("by molecular currents" of Ampere), and presence for electrons of an own magnetic moment". (G.E. Pustovalov, "Atomic and nuclear physics", Publishing House of the Moscow university, 1968, page 79-80).
Unfortunately, in the literature the end results of experiment of the Einstein and de Haas are described, instead of, how they have received them. Apparently, that the selection of an iron rod as an studied system in this experiment is extremely unsuccessful, since does not allow uniquely to interpret outcomes. It is known, that the ferromagnetics (iron) have separate microscopical (~10-4 cm) areas (domains), which one are magnetized before saturation and at magnetization reversal on a field will be oriented not magnetic moments of separate atoms, and whole areas of spontaneous magnetizing. Besides in an electro conductive material at magnetization reversal there are ring-type eddy currents of a compensatory direction, the large number of electrons participates simultaneously in which one. These currents result in a considerable dissipation of energy. Here it is possible to add and that atom iron is complex is arranged and in its constitution there is no full clearness even for orthodoxes. Is not clear, how in such conditions it was possible to receive any concrete outcome, and if it is obtained, is vaguely, that it means. It would be better to investigate a rod from a diamagnetic material, for example, water as ice, you see on official notions the rod from any material should be twisted, since in any matter there are electrons and all with an own magnetic moment. It is necessary to the reader also legibly to imagine, that though the hypothesis of Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck about a spin of an electron contradicts notions of itself official physics (that it was valid it is necessary, that or the charge of a driving electron has become somehow twice more, or the electronic mass has decreased twice). At the same time it is a corner stone of a modern physics, though from figurative notion of a spin for many reasons, including on considered, it was necessary to refuse. If will appear, that the own moment of an electron is not peer /2 (at an own magnetic moment to an equal magneton of the Bohr), the destruction up to the basis of all building of a modern physics is inevitable.
If to substitute official value of an angular momentum of an electron in (4.11), we shall receive, that the electron will be gyrated with light speed, having incredibly huge radius in 193.6 fm, which one exceeds the sizes of nuclei of high-gravity atoms. Its any decreasing should result in to relativistic increase of a rest-mass of an electron that too does not correspond to experimental data.
Recording an own mechanical moment of an electron: and substituting electronic mass and its radius, we shall discover, that a neutrino in an electron moves with light speed. It is possible to make from this some conclusions. At first, the electron is gyrated as a solid, i.e. for one revolution on orbit a neutrino makes one revolution about the axis (are turned to rotation axis of an electron always by one side). Secondly, all constituents of "elementary" particles moves or with speed of light, differently total mass of a particle will be peer to the sum of masses of parts, component it, that contradicts experiment. Thirdly, any movement of a fixed electron will be caused to relativistic increase of its mass, since by a neutrino in an electron already moves with light speed.
As a neutrino in an electron is gyrated as a solid, the formula (5.2.1) in this sense will be exact, since proper rotation the neutrino is possible to leave out. However pay attention that we begun to move a "fixed" electron for which one there is absent a mechanical moment , i.e. the electron as a whole is gone not on a screw line, and linearly. But such motion of an electron is impossible, since at motion of an electron on a screw trajectory its forward speed is peer tangential, therefore real relation of electronic mass to speed will be complicated, since to a impulse m0C the impulse mV will be added. Thus, the experimental curve of relation of electronic mass from speed consists as though of two curves. One (at m0C>mV), at relatively small speeds, is described by the formula (5.2.1). Second (at m0C<mV) is described by other relation. Apparently, that by a transition point (in a figure 5.2.1 I have designated it by a dagger) from one relation to another there will be a condition: m0C=mV. By substituting instead of m in this condition the formula (5.2.1), we shall receive: =0.707×C, =1.414× m0. Twist a figure 5.2.1 and look along branches of a curve to be convinced that the curve consists of two parts.
If bundle of atoms of hydrogen driving with speed close to speed of light to skip through a homogeneous powerful magnetic field, the planes of orbits of electrons will lie perpendicularly to field. Thus the electron, moving on orbit in a direction of atom motion, is compelled to augment mass, since can not move more speed of light, but in the second half of orbit a running speed the neutrino in an electron is subtracted from a running speed of atom, that will cause to decreasing electronic mass. In outcome orbit of an electron in a strong degree is distorted, that it is easy to determine by spectroscopic methods. Simultaneously such experiment will confirm also other conclusions of new physics distinguished from orthodox.
Summing up reason about mass it is possible quite definitely to state, that mass arises only there, where a particle as a whole or its constituent moves with speed of light. Thus mass will be inversely proportional to radius of orbit of a particle at the same mechanical moment it. If the constituents of a particle moves with speed are less than speed of light, it can not have any mass, therefore, can not exist in general. Then is apparent, that the particles having a rest-mass necessarily have components, not possessing a rest-mass in the sense that they always moves with speed of light (as much as small, but mass nonzero they should have, therefore their speed is less limit). Therefore, for example, the motion of an electron on a screw line causes increase of electronic mass only at the expense of motion a neutrino in an electron with light speed. In itself motion on coils of a screw line can not add mass to an electron as whole, as it takes place to speed less light. Therefore motion of free particles adds mass to not particles as such, but only to their constituents already driving with speed of light. On this basis the running speed of particles can not exceed speed of light. The speed of light limits not by environment (vacuum) or space, and driving body - relativistic increase of mass, bound with its absolute speed in space.
Substituting (4.10) in (5.2.1) and allowing, that , where r0 - classic radius of an electron, S - own mechanical moment of an electron, C - speed of light and m0 - rest-mass of an electron, we shall discover relation of radius of an electron to its forward speed (with the same limitations, what we made for relation of mass to speed):
Now there is a understandable futility of attempts of orthodox physics to determine radius of an electron. Being in a captivity of an indeterminacy relation of the Heisenberg, official physics requires increasing energy of an electron to determine its size. Thus radius of an electron "escapes" to zero point faster, than the explorers come nearer to definition of the size of an electron. The relativity theory requires dotty of elementary particles, but the experiments indicate all more persistently presence of an inner structure them, therefore official physics in a problem of the sizes of particles is in a condition of a full bewilderment.
Apparently, that the concept stippling of particles is dispossessed of physical sense, since such particles have not the sizes, therefore to get each other in essence can not.
To this it is possible to add, that
as the attempts to break an electron or proton on the constituents are vain,
imparting huge drop energy by it before impact. The strength them
"crowds" is much faster (at the expense of decreasing radius and
sharp increase of gravidynamic interplay of the constituents), than shattering
capacity. Even the unstable particle considerably augments a life time with
increase of speed, though orthodox physics is inclined to consider, that this
fact confirms deceleration time in driving bodies. Therefore all particles
driving with speed of light are certainly stable (electronic, muonic and other
kinds a neutrino, photon). "One of methods of experimental check of
deceleration of time is the research of relation of a life time -mesons
from their energy, i.e. speed. The experiment has shown, that the life time
driving m-mesons grows with increase of their
speed (energy) pursuant to the law of deceleration of time". N.I. Kariakin
etc., "Brief reference book on physics", "
For bound particles driving on circular orbits in one plane in a structure more of composite particles a situation essential diverse. Here impulse of two neutrinos in an electron equal m0C is directed to the same side, as the impulse of motion of an electron as a whole on a circular orbit mV and summary impulse a neutrino will be mC. From here relativistic increase of mass of a components particle on a circular orbit will be:
i.e. the relativistic increase of a particle mass on a circular orbit takes place much more quick, than at translational motion of a particle. Multiplying V and C on r and allowing, that Vr=, where value a constant, equal , we shall receive the formula of connection of relativistic mass of a compound particle with radius of its orbit for radiuses more critical, instituted by the formula (4.11):
where m0 - rest-mass of a particle, r - radius of orbit, C - speed of light. The formula (7.2.4) formally enables negative value of mass at radiuses of orbit of a particle less critical, therefore large request to mathematical-physical perverts to not use this fact contrary to common sense.
On notions of new physics the angular momentum free and bound in atom of an electron is identical owing to a law of conservation of angular momentum and is peer :
where: m - electronic mass, - speed of an electron on first orbit of the Bohr, r0 - radius of first orbit of the Bohr.
On the other hand, is shown, that the own moment of an electron («spin») is peer not , as official physics considers, in 137 times there is less angular momentum free or orbital electron:
where: - fine structure constant, c - speed of light, re - classic radius of an electron.
(18.104.22.168) we shall substitute in (22.214.171.124):
Orbital velocity of an electron n0 we shall discover by an only classic way from equalling of electrostatic attractive force to a nucleus and centrifugal force operational on an electron, i.e. the electron is gone with «by the first solar escape velocity» concerning a nucleus on a circular orbit:
The ratio of this speed to speed of light will be:
Substituting in (126.96.36.199) tabulared values, we shall discover: = 0,00729735, that coincides tabulared value of a fine structure constant. By substituting (188.8.131.52) in (184.108.40.206) we shall discover required connection between classic radius of an electron and radius of first orbit of the Bohr:
Apparently, that if radius of first orbit of the Bohr to multiply on a fine structure constant in the first degree, we shall receive critical radius of orbit of an electron rc. Thus its speed reaches speed of light, and at further decreasing of this radius the electronic mass will grow in inverse proportion to radius of orbit at preservation of angular momentum of an electron equal (see chapter 5.1):
If the electron has only orbital motion and translational motion is absence, the relativistic growth of mass of this electron will begin only from that moment, when it will reach speed of light on orbit, therefore registration of relativistic mass of electrons at the analysis of properties of atoms in official physics is error.
Let's consider a problem of interplay of a «cold» electron with a proton. In this problem it is necessary to esteem not the gyration of an electron around of a proton, and gyration around of proton a neutrino, which one are components of an electron since at loss by an electron of a moment , only they provide a moment of an electron , where - fine structure constant. Thus electron is gone rectilinearly, and screw motion commit included in its structure a neutrino. Radius of an electron is peer to classic radius, and the orbital velocity a neutrino is peer to speed of light. Under condition of, if radius of an electron remained invariable, when such electron «puts on» on a proton, the energy of an electrostatic attraction will make:
where: e - elementary charge, r0 - classic radius of an electron (spacing interval up to a proton).
By substituting in (220.127.116.11) expressions for classic radius of an electron:
received in this case energy of attraction equal energy of formation of an electron Etie = -mc2 = -0.511 MeV.
It is understandable, that by it the business does not limit and now it is necessary to consider further «dip» a neutrino on a proton. In this case speed the neutrino is impossible to change, therefore for preservation of a moment at reduction radius of orbit the electronic mass will be augmented:
Now it is possible to find electron-binding energy with a proton, receiving for a reset state classic radius of an electron, inside which one there is a proton. This energy will be the algebraic sum of energy of an electrostatic attraction and energy of universal repulsing:
Function (18.104.22.168) hasnt of an extremum. In it the energy of attraction always twice exceeds energy of universal repulsing, they change synchro, therefore bond energy is always negative. The equation (22.214.171.124) in view of expression for wll be converted to a kind:
If in (126.96.36.199) to substitute (188.8.131.52) that we shall discover here again endorsement of a virial theorem, on which one the energy of attraction twice is more than bond energy or energy of repulsing.
In the theory of elementary particles of new physics is shown, that at orbital motion with speed of light of any component in a structure of any «elementary» particle, weight of this component:
where s - angular momentum of a component in free (or bound) condition.
Each neutrino in an electron has an angular momentum:
By substituting this value in (184.108.40.206) we shall discover, that weight a neutrino in an electron in power units 0.2555 MeV, and electronic mass as a whole will be 0.511 MeV.
The expression (220.127.116.11) demonstrates, that there are no encumbrances to «dip» an electronic neutrino on a proton. The encumbrance is served with proton, limiting minimum radius of a neutrino trajectory.
On a figure 18.104.22.168 the mobile electron (see chapter 11) radius which one is peer 2.8179 fm is to scale figured, the red colour figures to scale proton (radius of a proton is counted up on a magnetic moment it and makes 0.587 fm, see chapter 7.5).
The generated neutron is shown inside a dashed square.
In a final kind radius of orbit the neutrino decreases in 2.53 times and becomes equal 1.11 fm (radius of a neutron). In as much time the sizes a neutrino decrease and the electronic mass is augmented.
Apparently, it is most simple a neutron to make of atom of hydrogen. For this purpose it is necessary to stop orbital motion of an electron. It is possible at once to guess, that for this purpose the ionization energy of hydrogen 13.6 eV will suffice. Really, the electron in a ground state of atom of hydrogen is gone with speed V = c, where c - speed of light, - fine structure constant. Therefore kinetic energy of an electron on orbit of the Bohr: E = mV2/2 = mc2/2. By substituting in this expression numerical values of constants, we shall discover E = 13.6 eV. Then is received, that production of neutrons from hydrogen energetically is very expedient: by expending 13.6 eV, we receive 1.29 MeV. There is a sense to try to catch in a space radiation photons, which one waft away exuberant energy at formation of neutrons from hydrogen, if such process takes place in space. As at formation of a neutron of exuberant energy suffices for originating pairs the electron - positron, which one then can annihilate, the applicable space radiation also is possible for finding out.
Magnetic moment of a contour with a current (in a system СGS):
where: a current of a contour , e - charge, T - cycle time of a charge, S - area of a contour.
Magnetic moment for a mobile electron:
where a wavelength of an electron:
By substituting (22.214.171.124) in (126.96.36.199), we shall discover:
In (188.8.131.52) we shall take into account, that the moment of a mobile electron is peer . Then we shall receive expression for a magneton of the Bohr conterminous with official:
Magnetic moment for an electron on orbit of the Bohr:
where - radius of orbit. It is known, that the running speed of an electron on orbit of the Bohr in of time is less than speed of light, where - the fine structure constant, therefore (184.108.40.206) start a kind:
The formula (220.127.116.11) too magneton of the Bohr, i.e. (18.104.22.168) = (22.214.171.124), that is foolproof to demonstrate.
Thus, the mobile electron has angular momentum on a screw trajectory and magnetic moment, to an equal magneton of the Bohr and on orbit of the Bohr the electron has the same parameters.
The experimental value of a magnetic moment of an electron is more than a magneton of the Bohr and equally , where - correction, which one the orthodoxes call radiation and connect to interplay of an electron with vacuum. In the Physical encyclopedia under edition A.M. Prohorov, v.1, page 91, М., 1988 the experimentally definite correction =1.159652193×10-3 is adduced and theoretically obtained =1.159652460×10-3. The fine concurrence of the orthodox theory with experiment is a subject of the special pride of official physics and is one of its most precise outcomes. However, if to analyze process of obtaining of this outcome, it very much resembles frank adjustment under the beforehand known answer. For similar «solution» of a problem at school put twains.
In view of that a neutrino in an electron move with speed of light, the formula (126.96.36.199) for an own magnetic moment of an electron start a kind:
where r0 - classic radius of an electron. Apparently, that the own magnetic moment of an electron is vectorly piled with the orbital moment, equal magneton of the Bohr. If the orbital plane a neutrino in an electron coincides a plane of orbital motion of an electron, the correction, bound with an own magnetic moment of an electron on (188.8.131.52) will be: =7.29636×10-3. From here it is possible to draw a conclusion, that the rotation axis of an electron is inclined under a definite angle to orbital plane, as it is visible for planets of a solar System. As for free macrobodies, moved on a screw line, and for an electron the rotation axis is inclined to a trajectory bevel way 450. At capture of a space body or electron into nuclear orbit the angle of lean changes, as shown in chapter 22.1. In the total this angle step-by-step receives an equilibrium value, as shown in a figure 184.108.40.206.
1 - orbit of the Bohr, 2 - orbit a neutrino in an electron, 3 - magnetic orbital moment (magneton of the Bohr), 4 - magnetic own moment of an electron.
The writer does not have explanatory idea how to count up angle between vectors 3 and 4 to find their sum. Therefore it is necessary too to be taken by adjustment. A angle between vectors 3 and 4 we shall consider equal . This angle is peer to angle of lean of orbital plane a neutrino to an orbital plane of an electron. To satisfy experimental value of an abnormal magnetic moment of an electron an angle ~ 810. Thus, the electron is gone on orbit almost «liing edgewise» similarly to Uranus in a solar System. This angle of lean arise from of the compromise between aiming to line magnetic moments in orthoposition (parallel) at the expense of gravidynamic interplay of an orbital and own mechanical moment of an electron and aiming to line magnetic moments in paraposition (counter) at the expense of magnetic interplay of magnetic moments.
Here will pertinent show to the reader, as official physics creates to itself difficulties and then «overcomes» them, creating there are more difficulties.
Official physics does not know the sizes of an electron, though
sometimes will use classic radius of an electron, but does not consider as its
true. For example, in the Physical encyclopedia under edition А.М. Prohorov, 1994, v.4, page 243 is
said, that in limit of accuracys of experiments (< 10-16 сm) the leptons do not find out the final sizes and probably, that their
size is close to Planck length 10-38 cm. The problem is, that the
indeterminacy relation of the Heisenberg assigns to give an electron a huge
impulse to define the sizes. But at increase of an impulse the electronic mass
is augmented and its radius decreases not therefore it follows from a
relativity theory, and because of operation of law of preservation of an
angular momentum at invariable speed close to speed of light. Try to count up
an angular momentum of a body, if I shall call to you its weight and running
speed, but nothing I shall tell about radius of this motion. Apparently, that
in such case it is impossible to count up a mechanical moment of an electron,
accordingly it is impossible to count and its own magnetic moment. This fact
demonstrates apparent fraud in act in ideally concurrence of computational and
experimental value of a magnetic moment of an electron. Therefore orthodoxes
without explanations receive a mechanical moment of an electron equal , that it has become «fermion» and corresponded to a
Pauli's exclusion principle, but then there is a problem with a magnetic moment
of an electron to agree experimental data a magnetic moment of an electron
receive to an equal magneton of the Bohr. To bypass a problem, arising at it,
with ratio of a mechanical moment to magnetic, contrary to sensibly physical
sense have invented a hypothesis Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck, on which
one this ratio for an electron in 2 times more trusted to. On it the problems
do not terminate, but only start. Orthodoxes have met with a unexpected
situation: the magnetic moment of a mobile electron is peer to a magnetic
moment of an electron atom of Hydrogenium. From here is received, that the
electron is not gyrated around of a nucleus, differently there will be a double
magnetic moment. Therefore such electron have called as a S-electron and have
assigned to it surprising properties. The S-electron appears that till one,
till other side from a nucleus (race past and through a nucleus, since the wave
function here is different from zero point). Thus the orthodoxes automatically
are make a bird into fire by own critics of the theory of atom of the Bohr,
since the orbital electron should lose energy on radiation. Whether is similar
thus an orbital electron to a dipole still it is necessary to demonstrate, and
moved backwards - forward precisely is a classic dipole. To leave from this
problem consider, that a cloud of a S-electron spherically symmetric, but then
the electron should have an angular momentum to appear in any point of this
cloud and will be the owner of a double magneton of the Bohr. Was soon found
out, that the magnetic moment of an electron in atom has abnormal value not in
accuracy to an equal magneton of the Bohr and the “radiation corrections” are
required. To permit the arisen next problem it was necessary to gaze on
«physical» vacuum, i.e. emptiness, which one the orthodoxes have allotted by
properties of a bag with gifts of Santa Claus from which one it is possible to
get everything, that will wish and have elaborated mass of ways, as it is
better for making. Here I want to add, that I do not believe in «the
experimental evidences», and I believe in experimental outcomes. For example,
the experimental outcome is, that at observation of a
The photon is figured on a figure 7.3.1 and the electronic neutrino and antineutrino revolving around of common center represents. From a figure 7.3.1 it is visible, that the photon simultaneously is a particle and antiparticle. The process of an annihilation of an electron and positron now can be written to a kind of such reacting:
We see, that the matter at annihilation does not fade and, as will be shown below, the electric charge too. Widespread judgement, that "annihilation" gives maximum output of energy, has appeared insecure. On energy content this process far will leave behind of reacting with particles, for which one radius of orbits components is less, than for an electron, and the own angular momentum is significant more. Simultaneously and the calculation of full energy content under the famous formula of the Einstein E=mC2 is only reflection of the sum of kinetic energy of translational motion of a particle and on coils of a screw line and does not correspond really to full energy content of a particle. Apparently, that the photon is gone on a screw trajectory in such a manner that rotated to an axis it always "by one side".
Let's disassemble, for an example that takes place at impact of two protons to formation of a neutron. The transmutation and interosculation of "elementary" particles both transmutation of mass and energy is their fundamental property, to which one we repeatedly shall address. This impact of protons is possible to present, as reacting between a proton and three photons, equivalent on energy to impacting protons:
In this reacting: 2e++e-, and one photon is disintegrated: . The impact of protons is possible with that by success to treat as transformation of energy of impacting protons not in three photons, and in a pair: an electron - positron and pair: a neutrino - antineutrino. The formed electron and electronic antineutrino, entrapped proton, will forms a neutron. Thus, the photons rather easily can be disintegrated on components and in general to fade, transmitting the energy to other particles is confirm both processes of radiation and occluding of photons by atoms. The decay of a photon on a neutrino and antineutrino especially visually is seen at transformation of a proton in a neutron in a nucleus as a result of е-capture (see details in the description of a neutron) or at a positron radioactivity.
Now there is clear a mechanism of formation of exited states of "elementary" particles. The photons with miscellaneous energy differ "by a wavelength de Broglie" (step both radius of screw motion and applicable radius of orbit a neutrino and antineutrino and their sizes). And with increase of energy of a photon a step and radius of screw motion decrease, radius of a photon and components it a neutrino decreases also. Connection between the sizes of a photon and it "by a wavelength" (step of a screw trajectory or circumference of cross section it) to receive very easily and we it shall make in the chapter about motion of photons.
As in matter sufficient quantity of objects, which one can resonance to occlude photons (precisely the same as the solar System occludes "resonant" macrobodies), the penetrating ability of photons is insignificant. The large penetrating ability separate a neutrino is connected that in customary matter there is no structure "wishing" to gain a neutrino. At eligible energy a neutrino, they could effectively be occluded, for example, by nuclei of high-gravity elements, promoting transformation of protons in neutrons.
Thus, any exited state is represented, as increase of a mechanical moment of a microsystem at value of a mechanical moment of a photon, which one for all photons is identical and is peer . Thus photon can remain in a system, being built in its structure or to dissolve on component a neutrino, which one escape the given microsystem or to vanish at all, by transmitting the energy to products of decay. It concerns and to photons, which one can be imagined "double", "treble" etc. From here also arises quantized of conditions, by the way, pertinent quantumness only of mechanical moments of particles. If all photons had not an identical mechanical moment, about any quantumness could not be speech.
In a described picture becomes to the apparent answer to an apparent paradox, on which one the atom is capable to occlude a photon, the wavelength which one so is great in matching dimensioned of atom, that occluding should not be watched at all, if the photon was an electromagnetic wave.
In this section opportunely to raise the question: than differ the particles having mass of "rest" (i.e. a particle which one can be to be stopped and meter their mass) from particles driving always with speeds of light and having, on presentation of orthodox physics a zero rest-mass. To last concern an electronic neutrino and antineutrino, muonic neutrino and antineutrino (more high-gravity neutrino incorporating "a photon"), and also photon. The answer to this problem is obvious - listed particles or the capabilities of gravidynamic interplay with the companion (electronic neutrino) have not at all, but only with themselves or this interplay between an electronic neutrino and antineutrino so gentle (electrostatic) in matching with interplay a neutrino - neutrino and antineutrino - antineutrino, that of potential well (the definite sizes of orbits) do not exist. Therefore "bring to a stop" particles not having rest-mass, we are compelled step-by-step to disperse their energy, augmenting radius of a screw trajectory and step-by-step reducing mass of these particles, but not their speed. "The nature of mass - one of major unsolved problems of a modern physics. It is accepted to consider, that mass of a elementary particle is determined by fields, which one are connected to it (electromagnetic, nuclear etc.), however any quantitative theory of mass to create it was not possible. Does not exist as well the theories which is accounting for, why the masses of elementary particles will forms a discrete spectrum of values and the more so permitting to determine this spectrum". "Physics of a microcosmos", "Soviet encyclopedia", 1980, page 245. New physics very simply explains originating mass, being founded on the fixed experimentally relation of mass to a running speed of a particle and principle of conservation of moment of momentum. The formula (4.8) establishes unambiguous connection between an angular momentum of a particle, its mass and radius of orbit in a structure of more composite particle or radius of a screw trajectory of a particle in a free condition. The decreasing of radius of a trajectory or orbit and increase of a common angular momentum of a particle is inevitably results in increase of its mass. Particles having a rest-mass, i.e. having a potential well the interplays of the constituents will form a discrete spectrum of masses, since consist, in the final accounting, of an electronic neutrino and antineutrino. The angular momentum of the constituents of "elementary" particles can receive only discrete values depending on a constitution of a "elementary" particle. It is possible to assimilate such particles to molecules of chemical combinations consisting all of two "atoms" (an electronic neutrino and an antineutrino). Naturally, that at increase of speed of such particles as whole, radius of a screw trajectory them will decrease, and mass to grow, but already fluently. As mass of those particles (with increase of their energy) fluently grows, which one have not a rest-mass (neutrino of all kinds and photon), i.e. the potential well of interplay of the constituents have not.
Here it is necessary to note that circumstance, that the speed of light is not speed of particles of a zero rest-mass, since photons have some mass of "rest" and under the formula of relativistic increase of mass, it will be infinite not at usually adopted speed of light, and hardly of the greater speed, which one is more comfortable to call as extreme speed. Besides thus an inconsistency in the formula of relativistic increase of mass, you see at once is removed also if to admit existence of particles with a zero rest-mass, it those and remain down to extreme speed, and then, on achievement it, at once will become indeterminate, that is physical nonsense. Therefore, there are no material objects having a zero rest-mass, as well as is not present driving with extreme speed (see section about a capability of above extreme speeds).
It is possible to count up value of extreme speed theoretically, by permitting the formula of relativistic increase of mass concerning extreme speed (instead of speed of light):
where: Cext - extreme speed, and C - speed of light. By substituting in (220.127.116.11) ratio of mass free (presumptively <3×10-5 m0, that corresponds <7.3 eV. The value is taken from: "Subatomic physics", Publishing House of the Moscow university, 1994, page 205) and in a structure of a photon (0.5 m0 for energy of a photon, equal electronic mass), we shall receive value of extreme speed distinguished in the side of increase from speed of light so few, that the error of measurements of observed speed of light on some orders exceeds this difference irrespective of value of particularly substituted digits. If we shall accept the certainly strongly overstated value of mass a free neutrino (we shall not allow for increase of its mass at the expense of gravidynamic interplay a neutrino with each other) equal , and in this case difference between speed of light in vacuum and extreme speed will be felt only in a fifth significant digit.
Here we have seen one more example of isolation of the mathematical formulas of a modern physics from physical sense and it, unfortunately, not last.
For a photon with a rest energy of an electron we shall accept: C = 299792456 m/sec (on Milligan), m0=3.729 eV. The professor P. Parshin (Academy of a civil Aviation, St.-Petersburg) in the private letter has notified to the author that under his data "rest-mass" of a photon makes 3.776 eV. m=0.511003 MeV. Substituting these values in the formula (7.3.3), we shall discover value of extreme speed Cext=299792456,00798231 m/sec. Recording the formula of relativistic increase of mass for two photons and supposing their "rest-mass" identical (if it will be miscellaneous, it will not be all the same strongly mirrored in an end result), we shall discover after some transformations speed of the second particle depending on a ratio of masses and speed of the first particle:
Let's accept a "violet" photon for a particle 1, and "red" for a particle 2. Mass of a "violet" photon in 1.75 times more mass of a "red" photon. Let's accept also, that the "violet" photon is gone with speed C=299792456 m/sec. Certainly, the precise value of its speed will differ from this value, but it is extremely a little. It is important to us to determine a difference of speeds of a "violet" and "red" photon. Substituting all values in (7.3.4), we shall discover: V2=299792455.98353649 m/sec. Thus, the speed of a "red" photon on 0.01646351 m/sec is less than speed "violet". That it has lagged behind for 1 second, 18209510365 seconds or 577 years are necessary. Allowing, that occulting variable stars change the luster from several hours and above, the change of their color at the expense of a difference of speeds of "violet" and "red" photons should be that of the order. In this case similar stars should place apart not less 1 million light years. It corresponds to peripherals of local group of galaxies, where it is impossible to watch not only occulting variable stars, but also in general separate stars. It is necessary to emphasize, that we have found the greatest possible difference of speeds of a "violet" and "red" photon provided that for them under the formula of relativistic increase of speed: m01=m02. If: , V1=V2, i.e. "violet" and "red" photon moves with the same speed. Most likely, as always, true somewhere in the middle: if m1/m2>1, . About "the rest-mass" of a photon can reason only hypothetically. Despite of a hopelessness to find out miscellaneous speed in photons with miscellaneous energy, watching natural space objects, the space experiment on this problem nevertheless is possible. Skipping a violet and red beam through a Kerr cell with a operating time of 10-9 sec (for this time the light beam passes 30 cm). Apart in 5.5 millions kilometers the difference of time of incoming of a violet and red beam will make no more than 10-9 sec that is possible to attempt experimentally to find out.
Because of that the photon on a screw trajectory is always gone with speed of light both in translational, and in a tangential direction, a neutrino and antineutrino (heteromatter) in a photon move as a matter of fact by parallel course. Pursuant to the theory of gravidynamic interplay of new physics at motion of a matter (neutrino) and antimatter (antineutrino) in one side they are attracted, is similar to conductors with a current of one direction. Inside the photon a neutrino and antineutrino are not displaced concerning each other, therefore gravidynamic repulsing, bound with internal motion in opposite directions, misses. The electrostatic attraction is compensatives by magnetic repulsing of parallel electric currents of unlike charges. At speed of light electrostatic and magnetic interplay inside a photon equilibrates each other, therefore integrity of a photon is determined practically by gravidynamic interplay of its parts, which one at speed of light is most by strong of all known interplays. Any particles can be sectioned into a screw trajectory on «left-hand» and «right-hand». The photon in essence differs by that except for the «left-hand» and «right-hand» photons there can be photons for which one at motion out neutrino or antineutrino always «looks». Thus, it is possible to lay the emphasis four sorts of photons. The special position of photons among other particles also is, that the photon cannot to itself be presented moved in vacuum with speed less speed of light. Then a neutrino and antineutrino should be gyrated around of common center, i.e. to move in opposite directions, that would result in them to gravidynamic repulsing and decay of a photon, therefore photon has not a rest-mass. The remaining particles are connected by gravidynamic attraction opposite moved on internal orbit homomatter, therefore have a rest-mass. If they could be dispersed up to speed of light, for one revolution of a screw trajectory the components of a particle will commit one revolution around of an axis, i.e. homomatter will move in one direction and the gravidynamic attraction will be replaced by repulsing. It too one of reasons of impossibility of motion with speed of light of particles possessing a rest-mass.
Problem of availability of mass for a photon the orthodoxies have complicated so, that can not in it’s be disassembled, of what the reader can be convinced from this chapter. That also to me to not confuse the reader, we shall consider in the beginning arguments demonstrating absence of mass for a photon, and then we shall produce proofs that the photon all the same has mass. Here I shall quote the Physical encyclopedia under edition A.M. Prohorov, М., 1988 - desktop book of orthodoxies.
The photon has not mass. Here it is necessary to agree upon distinction so-called, rest-mass and relativistic mass, bound with motion of a particle with light speed. Apparently, that about a rest-mass of a photon it is impossible to reason, since if it to stop, the photon disappears, by transmitting the energy and angular momentum to ambient particles.
PHOTON ()- elementary particle, quantum of an electromagnetic field. A rest-mass P. mg is peer to zero point (experimental limitation < 5×10-60 g), and consequently its speed is peer to speed of light. A spin P. Is peer 1 (in terms of ), (v.5, page 354)
The availability of mass for a photon completely is disclaimed by
followers of a relativity theory, since under this theory any mass can move
only with up to light speed. If will appear, that the photon has mass, it is
necessary to revise all relativity theory, though it is easier than it, in this
case to reject. The followers of the exchange mechanism of interplay also
disclaim availability of mass for a photon. On their notions of interplay of
particles fulfils by exchange of virtual (unobservable) particles. For example,
two electrical charges interchange virtual photons to realize a repulsion or
attraction of miscellaneous electric charges. As it concretely occurs, the
orthodoxies do not know, but consider, that the mechanism of exchange
interaction acts apart of
where: m - particle mass, c - speed of light, angular momentum of a particle.
It is necessary how to explain to audience, that gravitational and electrostatic interplay act on indefinitely large spacing interval, and, for example, nuclear interaction - on very small. Therefore mass of a photon and «graviton» needs to be accepted zero, that fraction in a right member has become indefinitely large. Here term «graviton» is taken in inverted commas, I do not believe in this fabrication of orthodoxies. The nuclear forces too «are easily explained» if to consider, that they are conditioned by exchange of mesons having mass eligible for sizes a nucleus.
Now we shall see what fraud hides behind it outwardly by logical explanation of a long-range action gravitational and electrostatic field and small radius of action of nuclear forces. The formula de Broglie and the experiments on its check demonstrate that for all particles the angular momentum is identical and is peer:
where: v - speed of a particle, r - radius of its screw trajectory (as was found out in new physics). By substituting (18.104.22.168) in (22.214.171.124) we shall be convinced, that «the Compton wavelength of a particle» does not depend on its mass, but only from product vr for the given particle, which one in no relativistic area remains to a constant (for an electron =1.1576 cm2/sec). It is ground of these facts of gambles of orthodoxies about the exchange mechanism of interplays it is necessary to recognize false. Therefore only arguments of a relativity theory we can esteem seriously so long as this theory is represented to us valid.
The photon has mass. For the benefit of availability of weight for a
photon speak some fixed experimental facts: 1. Pressure of light, 2. Effect of
1. Pressure of light. It is clear, that the pressure of light is connected to its corpuscular nature. The explanation of pressure of light from the point of view of the electromagnetic theory is not logical: “Pressure of light according to the electromagnetic theory. If on a body surface normally to her the electromagnetic wave drops, the availability of an electric vector Е results in displacement of charged particles of material. The driving charges on the part of a magnetic vector Н of a coming surge are affected by (with) forces of Lorentz... This force determines a light face pressure of bodies”. Н.И. Карякин etc., Brief reference book on physics, “Higher School”, М., 1962, page 297. From this explanation it is visible, that the pressure of light depends as well on an electron concentration in material that contradicts experiment. The quantitative calculation of pressure of light on new physics is given in chapter 23, the formula (23.11), where is simultaneously shown an error of orthodoxies in adjustment of the notions under experiment.
2. Effect of a
(Compton effect, Compton scattering) - dissipation of an electromagnetic wave on a mobile electron accompanied by reduction of frequency. The effect is watched for large frequencies of disseminated electromagnetic radiation (in x-ray area and above). He showed already in the first experiments on dissipation of X-rays on mobile electrons, but for the first time with demanded carefulness was studied by A. Compton in 1922-23. Historically C.e. was by one of the main testimonies for the benefit of the corpuscular nature of electromagnetic radiation (in particular, light). From the point of view of a classic electrodynamics the dissipation with a frequency drift is impossible. (v.2, page 431). Even in this quotation the absence the logic in orthodox notions is visible. If from the point of view of a classic electrodynamics (Maxwell) the dissipation with a frequency drift is impossible, there is no sense to speak about dissipation of an electromagnetic wave on a mobile electron and in general about these waves, and it is necessary conduct speech about dissipation of a photon on an electron.
In experiments of A. Compton on dissipation of X-rays was established, that the quanta of radiation are subject to those to the kinematics laws, as particles of matter, in particular quantum of radiation with frequency w has as well an impulse hw/c. (v.5, page 354). And from this quotation it is visible, that the photon has mass, since only at its availability it is possible to speak about an impulse. The statement, that the rest-mass of a photon is peer to zero point, practically anywhere it is impossible to apply, since the reposing photons do not exist, therefore gambles around of the formula (126.96.36.199) have not physical sense.
3. Frequency drifts of photons in a gravitational field. This effect directly indicates availability of mass for a photon, i.e. its gravitational interaction with gravitating bodies. Red displacement of a spectrum of massive stars, deviation of light beams near to the Sun, reddening of photons moved up in a field of gravitation of the Earth, and turn blue them at motion downwards uniquely indicate availability of mass of a photon. New physics does not distinguish «rest-mass» and «relativistic mass», since considers, that, and the rest-mass is relativistic, since is conditioned by circular movement of components of elementary particles with speed of light c. Thus, because of operation of law of preservation of an angular momentum L the ratio is executed:
where: m - particle mass, r - its radius.
Interconversion of mass and energy. This problem is more friend than all to consider on an example of an electron. An electron - the light charged particle, can receive at interplays large acceleration, therefore interconversion of mass and energy will realize easily. The modern physics can not answer a problem, whence and how there are photons at absorption and radiation of energy by atom. To find the answer to this problem, we shall take into consideration that the electron represents two rotated around of common center of gravidynamic interplay a neutrino. The steadiest configuration of this system will correspond to a bottom of a potential well at equaling of centrifugal effort of repulsion and of gravidynamic attractive force. At obtaining or radiation of any portion of energy the electron will pass in disequilibrium, from which one a neutrinos again will return on a stable orbit. This situation is shown on a figure 188.8.131.52.
Spacing interval re between a neutrino corresponds to their stable orbit 2.81785 fm. On this spacing interval bond energy a neutrino (well depth) corresponds 0.511 MeV. Though for a mobile electron the well depth of gravidynamic interplay remains 0.511 MeV, but if there is potential energy for an electron, it can be increased, for example, up to 0.511 MeV + 13.6 eV on orbit of Bohr. Thus radius of an electron decreases pursuant to (184.108.40.206), though and it is insignificant.
If an electron beams to accelerate in a potent electrostatic field, radius of electrons decreases of the proportionally obtained kinetic energy. If now electron needs be to be braked and to be stopped at bombardment of a target cathode, radius of an electron is augmented up to classic radius sharply. Thus the photons with energy of the equal obtained kinetic energy are beamed. Precisely that occurs at an electron jump in atom from a high-altitude orbit on low. Thus, the formula (220.127.116.11) always provides a precise interconversion of mass and energy. For example, if we from each nucleon of a nucleus shall take away energy 7 MeV on energy of gravidynamic connection, radius of nucleons will be increased, and the nuclear mass will be diminished by the conforming value.
Let's find a total energy of a photon on a screw trajectory. Translational and tangential velocities on coils of such trajectory are peer, therefore:
whence mass of a photon:
As the transfer and reception of energy in a micro cosmos realizes, basically, photons, (18.104.22.168) confirms the famous formula of connection of mass and energy: E = mc2. Now we know also physical sense of this formula.
Comments of the author to chapter 7.3.1:
1. Interconnection of mass of a body, its kinetic energy and bond energy.
First of all we is determined absolute mass of a body. At increase of a kinetic energy of a body its mass is augmented pursuant to the formula E=mc2, and at increase of bond energy of the given body with other bodies its mass decreases on bond energy. Thus, absolute mass has the body on infinite deleting from other bodies, i.e. free and absolutely fixed, i.e. not participating in absolute screw motion. Let's designate absolute mass through m0. The absolute value of a kinetic energy of a body is connected to instantaneous velocity (vm) of this body on a coil of a screw trajectory (E0k=m×(vm)2), since the kinetic energy of screw motion is tot up from a kinetic energy of translational motion and tangential motion on coils of a screw trajectory (therefore, instead of mv2/2 there will be mv2). Separately absolute potential energy of a body does not need to be determined, since its «zerolevel» is selected arbitrary, but the bond energy is absolute and completely includes potential energy of a body. It is that energy, which one should be expended as an initial kinetic energy to eliminate a body on perpetuity. Accordingly, the bond energy can be recorded, how E0b=m×(Vb)2, where vb - «the second solar escape velocity», is necessary to give which one to a body to eliminate it on perpetuity. In actual processes in space we is observed running speeds not superior 0.1с, therefore these objects augment mass no more, than by 1% from m0. Bond energy of nucleones in a nucleus makes 7 MeV, and mass of a nucleone 940 MeV, i.e. bond energy can lower mass maximum on 0.7% from mass m0. Thus, neither high speed of motion, nor the large bond energy on mass of bodies practically does not influence.
For an example, we shall consider a mutual relationship of mass of a body, its kinetic energy and bond energy at throwing a rock upright upwards. Though the rock actually participates in complex motion together with the Earth, Solar System and Galaxy and, simultaneously, except for bond energy to the Earth is connected also with other celestial bodies, we shall consider its mass constant and equal m0. At the moment of a throw the kinetic energy of a rock is max, the greatest component will be and to mass of a rock. In process of upstroke the kinetic energy descends - mass decreases, the bond energy with the Earth descends also - mass is augmented. The speed of a rock is peer a top of a trajectory point to zero point, and the bond energy with the Earth is minimum, - mass of a rock remains is more, than m0. At a backward motion the bond energy with the Earth is augmented, but the speed of dip is augmented also. At the moment of impact about ground the energy of a rock superior m0 is completely beamed by the way of photons of heat radiation.
With one accessory "photon" (pair the neutrino - antineutrino) will be formed a muonic neutrino - first exited state an electronic neutrino. The muonic neutrino is figured on a figure 7.4.1 and represents a complex particle of a structure .
Radius of orbit, as well as for a photon, depends on energy a muonic neutrino. Naturally, that are possible doubly (), triply etc. exited states an electronic neutrino. Multiply exited electronic neutrino should be unstable and to be disintegrated on less exited state and applicable number of photons. The decay a muonic neutrino should originate so: , . "The annihilation" a muonic neutrino should implement thus: .
Angular momentum the free muonic neutrino makes /2. Accordingly, its rest-mass will be in 137.0391 times more rest-mass an electronic neutrino. With two "photons" the t-neutrino () with a moment /2 will be received etc. Similar, that in these particles «the photons» is present in the concrete at a structure of a particle and steadies it; therefore , etc. are steady formations. The supposition is logical that a pair neutrino will form steady charged particles: an electron - electronic neutrino, proton - muonic antineutrino, hypothetical stable high-gravity negatively charged particle is formed by a pair -neutrino (or -antineutrino - with a positive charge). Such supposition confirms a constitution of a proton.
Official physics recognizes, that the proton is not a elementary particle, and consists of any subparticles.
Let's consider "annihilation" of a proton and antiproton on reacting:
“Let's throw out” from here all photons and we shall look, that remain. are two photons. 2 we shall consider as inhering to a proton, and 2 - antiproton. Let's decrypt through separate details (see constitution , and ):
We see, that anything new in a proton is not present, except for two exited electronic neutrinos, and the structure of a proton , and antiproton , that is mirrored in a figure 7.5.1.
Rest-mass of a proton 938.256 MeV. Is those there will be also increment of measured mass, since mass of "rest" even six (free) electronic neutrinos anything in this digit will not change. Because of very large bond energy a muonic neutrino in a proton in that kind, as they are figured on a figure 7.4.1 to exist can not. The huge bond energy causes "to interflow" two muonic neutrinos with formation of one orbit. On one the neutrino is suit a increment of measured mass 938.256 : 6 = 156.38 MeV or 2.7875 × 10-25 g. By substituting this value in (4.8), we shall receive r = 0.631 fm. From (4.4) it is possible also to find radius of a proton, allowing, that from a figure 7.5.1 on orbit moves two "photons" () and one "a positron" (), which one and imparts a magnetic moment. Let's remark, that the experimentally retrieved magnetic moment of a proton makes 2.79 nuc. The value of radius of a proton under these data is received 0.587 fm, that will be well agrees the previous value of radius. Thus, an own mechanical moment of a proton (spin) makes 3, instead of /2, as official physics considers. Accordingly and the magnetic moment of a proton almost three times is more than a nuclear magneton.
The experiments on dissipation a neutrino and electrons on protons with the purpose of analysis of an inner structure of a proton have shown, that if to recognize that a proton consists of three quarks, there is a problem of missing mass (on them half of mass of a proton is necessary only). If a neutrino in a proton we shall call "quarks", them there are six and the problem of missing mass fades. Thus, the experiments confirm conclusions of new physics and contradict official (see fig. 4.12 and page 150-152 in the book: "Fundamental structure of the matter", "World", М., 1984). Nay, at energy of bundle a neutrino in some GeV "already at this level of the resolution there are obvious experimental testimonies that in structure of a proton is contained antiparticles". (Ibidem, page 165-166).
New physics easily explains magnetic moments of a proton, antiproton, neutron (i.e. hadrons in a nomenclature of official science). Itself official physics considers as their by "abnormal" and for explanation this irregularity again is sufficed for saving straw of "virtual particles". "The magnetic moments of hadrons do not correspond to this formula (giving value of a magneton of the Bohr - V.K.). So, magnetic moment of a proton in 2.79 times more "normal" - nuclear magneton (M - mass of a proton), and the magnetic moment of a neutron is peer -1.91 nuc, i.e. essentially is different from zero point, though the neutron has not electric charge. The originating of an abnormal magnetic moment of hadrons is connected to their strong interaction conditioning mutual virtual transformations of these particles. The neutron, for example, can virtual pass in a pair of charged particles: a proton and negative pi-meson; the proton, by releasing virtual positive -meson, is transformed into a neutron etc. It is possible to tell, that each hadron the definite time conducts in a condition "dissociated" on other particles. From here it is uneasy to understand a genesis of abnormal magnetic moments. So, the magnetic moment of a neutron forms by motion "component" it of a proton and -meson etc. Such explanation has, however, only quality nature because of absence of the finished theory of a strong interaction". "Physics of a microcosmos", "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1980, page 243.
Apparently, that such decay of a proton is possible also: P+e++, which one is supposed the modern theory of quarks (see, for example, "Fundamental structure of the matter", "World", М., 1984, page 170). (See constitution meson).
The reason of a skewness of a world in the side of formation of protons and electrons, instead of antiprotons and positrons, in the final accounting, should be hidden in a miscellaneous constitution a neutrino and antineutrino and below we shall open it. If for new physics there is no problem of skewness of particles and antiparticles, as their identical quantity (if to count a neutrino and antineutrino), for official physics it very composite problem: "... It is necessary to explain, why today Universe consists almost exclusively of particles, whereas number of antiparticles it is not enough". Ibidem, page 28.
Thus, all world, ambient us, consists of an electronic neutrino with the antiparticle and in this sense to put a problem on "anti-world" it is not sense, since "anti-world" is mated as a matter of fact with our world. and equally enter in electrons and protons, and also photons. The truth, on one "superfluous" is in each neutron and in this sense our ordinary world more "anti". But if to take into account all free neutrino, the balance will be full. "... Or a flow the electronic neutrino for a surface of the Earth makes not 3 %, as the theory of cosmic rays forecasts, and is significant it is more. It is possible, that an exuberant flow - extraterrestrial genesis, for example, kept from a bright phase of development of the Universe". "Physics of a microcosmos", "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1980, page 279.
7.6. What us will give a Large Collider?
Nothing if to tell shortly. The irresponsible scientists and the officials for billions of bucks of the taxpayers have created large beanbag by means of which wants to knock positive protons each other and to look, that from this will be received. The science for a long time has lost any shame and requires the urgent rigid control of the society of its irrepressible appetite. It would be possible still to suffer, if the modern physics in the beginning has elaborated the adequate theory of microparticles, and then has confirmed by its experiments. As is known, such theory official physics has not. The delirium under a title «the string theory» to any criteria of the scientific theory does not correspond. Most of all disturbs that the official science of the remaining quoters of mankind considers as the laymans. That these plebs were not indignant concerning embezzlement of huge means, the reliable method of switching of attention is utilised. In the society the version of loss of mankind is launched as a result of formation «of a black hole» or some more any devildom by activity of a collider. All were threw to frighten each other or to justify of orthodoxes and already there is no time to be engaged in financial disassemblies.
Here I shall be attempted to forecast, what outcomes will receive orthodoxes by activity of a collider, as new physics owns the adequate theory of microparticles as against official.
At first, any awful consequences of impacts of vigorous positive protons are fabrications. In space and on the Earth positive protons frequently collide without severe consequences, some of which have energy up to 1021 eV - any colliders far up to this energy.
Secondly, new physics results in a unequivocal conclusion: the energy creates particles, the particles create fields, and the fields create interplays.
The most likely event in a collider - formation of neutral pions and photons from energy of positive protons, and the positive protons remain whole. The general energy of the pions, which have arisen at impact, and photons will be peer to energy of positive protons, but quantity of the formed pions will be less idealized on huge kinetic energy of these pions. The positive protons practically cannot be divided into electrons, component them, and positrons (chapter 7.5), since the large energy we inform a particle, the more its mass and a gravidynamic field linking components of a particle in a unit, is augmented. In this version of outcomes of activity of a collider anything new is not present, therefore I for 10 bucks could notify this outcome even before building a collider. Naturally, that the orthodoxes will not be make it up with such discouraging outcome, and will extemporize new «great achievements» sciences verifying them of the theory.
1. The whole positive protons at impact can formed an exotic particle - «biproton» 2p++ with mass (13.4 + 1)×2×70.03 = 2016.864 MeV. In it both positive protons are gyrated on one orbit, as an antineutrino in a positron (chapter 10.1). Considerably to increase probability of originating of this particle, it is necessary to impact the «left-hand» and «right» positive protons. But thus the orthodoxes should previously be convinced that the microparticles always move on a screw trajectory.
The self-confidence in science is always punishable. Therefore it is necessary to have «back door». Though I am sure in the conclusions, but that my descendants did not spits in a portrait the grandfather, it is necessary to consider also improbable, from my point of view, events. If contrary to progressively increasing strength of a positive proton, it on any unknowns, while, reasons all the same will be fall apart on a parts, it is possible to guess improbable reactings (without the registration of neutral pions, naturally nascents at such energies, photons and pairs: a particle - antiparticle).
2. Decay of a positive proton on the constituents practically is impossible, but in this case would occur «bielectrons» and «bipositrons» with double charges, and the baryon quantum number disappeared. Such version the orthodoxes do not receive, though do not know physical sense of this number.
Thus, obtaining in a collider «of biproton» - alone capability entertain vanity of official physics.
Comments of the author to chapter 7.6:
1. Decay of biprotons in a collider.
In October, 2009 I have forecast detection of biprotons by activity of a large collider. Now this prediction has come true. The «pair correlations» of particles are found, when these particles scatter in the counter sides with speed of light on one line. If this phenomenon is not clear to the quoters of official science, that, from the point of view of new physics, the phenomenon is quite understandable. At counter motion of protons, its on short time will forms a gravidynamic system - biproton, in which one both protons are gyrated in one side on common orbit. At decay of biproton components its protons scatter in the counter sides with speed of light. It is understandable, that a simple phenomenon the scientists maximum will complicate, differently they will cease themselves to respect.