29. PROBLEMS of COSMOLOGY
In that or diverse kind of a problem of a cosmology were affected during the book, therefore here they will be enunciated in the organic kind.
Till now there is no unified view on the Universe as a whole.
"We do not know a little precisely mass or sizes of an explored system (Universe). We do not know, whether the apparent expansion of the Universe will be prolonged indefinitely or, eventually, will be stopped and will be replaced by squeezing. We do not know, whether there is in the Universe in any significant amounts antimatter. Whether there are antigalaxies? Probably, also is not present: we have not the reliable proofs of their existence. We do not know the nature of quasars radiating huge energy. We know very little about details of evolution of stars after stage of the red giant. We can not understand why in space there are molecules. We have not the reliable theory of cosmic rays of super-high energies. And, certainly, we nothing know about a genesis of the Universe, though the available now data indicate that its expansion is an result having place about 10 billions of years back of monstrous explosion, the power cannot to itself be presented which one even. But whence this huge quantity of initial energy has appeared?" J. B. Marion, Physics and the Physical Universe, “World”, Moscow, 1975, page 612-613. New physics gives the exhausting answers to problems, listed in this quotation.
On some notions the Universe is stationary and is perpetual in space and in time, and on another - non-stationary. Naturally, that both notions have set of variations, for example, the fixed Universe is indefinitely dilated so, that density of matter and its kind remain invariable at the expense of constant "birth" of new matter.
"The main competitor of this theory was the theory of a stationary state, in the basis which one puts a generalized principle of homogeneity. The principle of homogeneity states, that the Universe should look equally from any point of space. This principle is difficult for mating with our last observations. But, besides, the principle of homogeneity asserts, that the Universe looks equally at any moment of time, i.e. it had the same kind in past and always will as look in the future. In the theory of a stationary state this principle of homogeneity is fair owing to an allowance, that the matter in the Universe forms continuously and uniformly, thus the generation rate of matter coincides a reduction rate of mean density of matter in the dilated Universe. According to measurements, the velocity of expansion of the Universe is those, that full density of matter in it remain to a stationary value, if in a volume, equal 1015 cm3 (or 1 km3), will be spontaneous annually to arise one neutron (or atom of hydrogen). It is possible to object, that the spontaneous appearance of neutrons contradicts energy conservation laws, momentum and heavy particles. But the speech goes about is insignificant feeble violation of these "conservation laws"". J. Orir, Popular physics, “World”, Moscow, 1969, page 359. Let's note here, that the orthodoxes at any handle skip the fundamental laws of the nature. Sinned with it and Einstein, being the supporter of the fixed Universe.
The non-stationary Universe is indefinitely dilated or the expansion is alternated with a collapse behind which one the next Big Bang - Universe eternally follows pulses.
"Therefore, the moves away galaxies are similar on debris blown-up "manual grenade". This explanation of the dilated Universe is termed as the theory "of Big Bang" (Fundamentals of the theory of the dilated Universe were included in 1922 by work of the A.A. Fridman). Now Fridman’s the model of a world has received wide recognition, for gives, apparently, most adequate description of actual state of the Universe. - Comment of editor). Is possible, the satisfactory version of the similar approach is the theory of the pulsatory Universe. In this theory of a galaxy are slowed down, return, the expansion turn, while all galaxies do not interflow, that then results to new "Big Bang"". Ibidem, page 358-359.
Main answer against the pulsatory Universe is the ungrounded statement about increase of entropy of the Universe, both during expansion, and at squeezing (collapse).
"It seemed recurring cycles is possible. However second beginning of thermodynamics prohibits oscillating model. Really, the entropy of the Universe only grows. The entropy grows both during expansion and during squeezing. At a collapse it is possible to expect especially strong ascending of entropy". I.D. Novikov, Evolution of the Universe, "Science", М., 1983, page 166." In view of increase of entropy the oscillating model of the Universe does not allow to describe eternal existence of the Universe from t=-¥. The theory of the oscillating Universe does not achieve a goal, facing this theory, - to give the description of the eternal Universe". Ibidem, page 167.
Here author follows widespread fallacy, that the laws of thermodynamics can be applied to space systems. The thermodynamics can be applied only to statistical ensembles no interacting with each other of particles capable freely to interchange energy, i.e. to ideal gas, which one does not have the relevant objects of an actual world. The description of a condition of real gases already requires corrective action. The interaction of the terms of an ensemble results in structuring a system and in this case laws of thermodynamics are inapplicable not only to a system as a whole, but also to its any terms. Himself author is the convincing proof of violation of the second law of thermodynamics.
As is known, the entropy is proportional to the logarithm of number of possible system conditions (J.I. Gerasimov etc., Course of physical chemistry, v.1, Moscow, 1963, page 107). With increase of clutter in arrangement of particles the entropy of a system will increase is an outflow from positions of statistical thermodynamics. Therefore basic factor of reduction of entropy of a system is the gravitation, and a basic factor of increase it is a coulomb repulsion of parts of a supernucleus (see below). During expansion of the Universe it "entropy" is incremented, and in stage of a collapse - decreases. Earlier we scored and will below be shown, that the thermodynamics generally is inapplicable to space systems, and therefore it is necessary the term "entropy" to utilize in quotes.
Apparently, that of the law of world attraction of the Newton already it is quite enough that the Universe to make non-stationary: eventually, following to this law, the matter of the Universe should collect in one place.
"Dynamics of expansion of Metagalaxy - one of main problems of a cosmology. It is known, that in a Metagalaxy the gravitational forces act, which one aim to collect matter of a Metagalaxy, however, according to observations, it is dilated. For separate space bodies (stars, galaxies etc.) the conditions of a dynamic balance are clarified. In stars the action of gravitation is counterpoised by a pressure differential of gas and radiation increased to center of a star together with temperature. In galaxies gravity is counteracted by a centrifugal force and dispersion of velocities of stars. In scales of a Metagalaxy there are no differences of density or temperature, in it there is no and some noticeable rotation. If not to enter of any hypothetical forces, opposing gravitation, there is an alone conclusion: the Metagalaxy is dilated on inertia. Its expansion is a corollary of some starting conditions - high speeds, which one the matter had at early stage of development of the Universe. The reason of this initial expansion is not known yet. From known physical processes neither nuclear detonation, nor any other, bound with known power sources, can not give of the characteristics of apparent expansion". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 119.
That the Universe all the same "to make" stationary (if it would be very desirable, it is possible!), the Einstein in the equations GRT has entered a cosmological constant L sense by which one that to it the repulsion between gravitational charges is entered. The repulsion is proportional to distance between them and does not depend on value of these charges - so-called "the gravitation of vacuum" (one more example that with mathematics and common sense it is possible to make that want in a favour to subjective needs).
Without L-term the Universe can not be stationary on account of to the theorem of the Irnshow. "The analysis of different equilibrium configurations of fixed charges convinces that always there is such reconfiguration of charges, at which one the potential energy of a system will be diminished, and has become to be, the considered equilibrium of charges is unstable. The formulation of the theorem of the Irnshow: steady static distribution electrical (and gravitational - V.K.) charges it is impossible. From the theorem Irnshow follows, that the atoms and molecules representing stable systems of electric charges, should be dynamic systems, the parts which one are in continuous motion". N.I. Kariakin etc., Brief manual on physics, "Higher School", М., 1962, page 196. It seemed, the stable state of nuclei of atoms contradicts the theorem Irnshow, however this inconsistency apparent, since the coulomb repulsion of protons is compensated by gravidynamic attraction (nuclear forces). Note, that the theorem of the Irnshow disclaims notions of a quantum mechanics, on which one the electron in a S-condition is not gyrated around of a nucleus.
Without L-term in the Universe of the Einstein there would be unsolvable problems with GRT, for example, in dilated or collapsing by the Universe the curvature of space changes, therefore, quantity of matter in it should change, an energy conservation law therefore is not executed. When the Einstein was acquainted with the theory of the dilated Universe of the A.A. Fridman, he has refused from L-term. "The Einstein has termed introduction of a cosmological constant in the equations "as the bloomer in the life"". I.D. Novikov, Evolution of the Universe, "Science", М., 1983, page 60. But birdie already has taken off also it will not catch. Completely worn to a frazzle Einstein’s -term till now nomadizes from one work adherents of doctrines in science in another, it periodically that bury, that exhumes. To make both ends meet in a world of elementary particles, of physicists have given rise here again of twin the L-term and same physical monster - gluon - accountable for deduction of quarks components baryons. The more than distance between quarks, the stronger gluon retains them in a baryon.
The idea of static character of the Universe going from times Aristotle and reflected in GRT, has appeared error and it with all conspicuity has become clear after discovery of natural radioactivity of elements and law Habble. "It is possible to remind, that the evolution are made already in nonreversible decay of radioactive matters. If the celestial body - Earth - existed eternally, all radioactive matters for a long time disintegrated... So, the static picture is unacceptable for any astronomical systems if only to view rather large periods. If today it was necessary anew to plot model of the Universe, it would be necessary to demand, that the model was evolving, that in model there was an indicating on epoch, when in the Universe began birth of stars, galaxies etc." I.D. Novikov, Evolution of the Universe, "Science", М., 1983, page 9.
А.А. Fridman has demonstrated necessity of global evolution of the Universe. By a hard blow on GRT was the fact of obtaining of much it experimentally apparent results in frameworks of the theory of the Newton. However Newtonian (so-called by nonrelativistic) the cosmologies have hurried to assign particular "difficulties", as it was similarly made for the theory of atoms of the Bohr to push a quantum mechanics. "In 30-th, already after creation GRT, it was possible to show, that its many results can be received and within the framework of a Newtonian, nonrelativistic cosmology. However nonrelativistic cosmology is interfere with series of serious difficulties". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 120. Thus frankly the shady method is utilized. The theory of the Newton results to unambiguous non-steady-state by the Universe, and it apply to fixed infinite in time and space of the Universe. Thus at once there are two paradoxes: gravitational (paradox of the Zeeliger, 1895) and photometric (paradox of the Olbers, 1826) on the basis of that conclude an inconsistency of the Newtonian theory and validity GRT instead of drawing a conclusion about boundedness of the Universe in space and perpetuity in time, i.e. about oscillations of the Universe, that is an alone reasonable corollary of the law of world attraction. In this case indicated paradoxes do not arise, as are a corollary only of error judgement on infinite extent of the Universe, and the picture of a world will be completely agreed with apparent and contradicts GRT.
The essence of gravitational paradox is encompass therein, that in the infinite Universe on any body "to the right" and "to the left" indefinitely large attractive force acts, signifies, the resulting force is determined by expression: F=-. This expression correctly at any values F in the left-hand part, i.e. the resulting force is indefinite, that is dispossessed of physical sense. The essence of photometric paradox that in the infinite Universe at uniform filling by its stars increase of number of stars in layers, farther from the spectator, is compensated by attenuation of a luminous flux from them, as a result of which each layer creates identical illumination intensity. In the infinite Universe the number of layers is indefinite, therefore illumination intensity created by all stars should be indefinitely large, and if to take into account mutual screening of stars, the sky brightness should approximately equal surface brightness of the Sun. If for restricted in space of the Universe the indicated paradoxes are removed without problems, "explanation" by their relativistic cosmology (theory GRT) is represented disputable. "In a relativistic cosmology grounded on the Einstein theory of gravitation, the gravitational paradox does not arise. The system of the gravitational Einstein's equations allows removing mentioned ambiguity of a field of accelerations (uncertainty of a resulting force of gravitation - V.K.). To avoid photometric paradox, it is enough to take into account non-steady-state by the Universe: by virtue of red displacement the luminous fluxes from far objects are attenuated". Ibidem, page 121. Here gravitational paradox is not explained from a physical point of view, shifting liability on formal mathematical equations exhausted from the finger, and the shift of a radiation spectrum in red area, apparently, can not explain photometric paradox, and only to aggravate it, since maximum of radiation of the majority of stars specially far (we them see young) it is necessary on a ultra-violet segment of a spectrum. Besides the author of this quotation has managed to mate not compatible: combined system equations featuring the fixed Universe on GRT and red displacement, contradicting GRT.
If only one law of gravitation suffices for the statement of a finiteness of the Universe in space, the problem on perpetuity it in time requires the philosophical approach. Internally we can not imagine perpetuity in time, being set a problem, and whence and why all this has appears, perpetuity in space, asking itself: and what there, beyond the horizon? It is connected to all daily experience of the man, therefore statement of perpetuity of the Universe in time, though leaves internal feeling of dissatisfaction, it is necessary to recognize fair. Otherwise again there is an insuperable logic inconsistency: who has created the Creator, whence has appears the Creator of the Creator etc. ad infinitum. Summing up said, the Universe is represented indefinitely pulsatory in time on the mechanism: the Big Bang - collapse and as a corollary it is always restricted in space, since the matter can not be moves faster than light.
To ensure perpetuity of the Universe in time, the speed of light should be less or peer to the first cosmic velocity for the Universe as a whole. In this case, the energy can not be lost in any kind and the process of oscillation of the Universe can be prolonged eternally. Let's look; what should be the Universe in the present moment to satisfy this requirement.
The first cosmic velocity is determined from simple equality of an attractive force and centrifugal force on orbit of radius of a central body around of it:
where G - gravitation constant (6.67×10-8 dynes×cm2/g2), C - speed of light (2.99793×1010 cm/sec), r - radius of the Universe (we shall accept equal 10 billions light years, 9.461×1027 cm), ("For a recent epoch the observation horizon makes ~10 billions light years. The light sources, which one are on farther distances, now are basic unobservable. It is interesting to mark, that modern optical and the radio telescopes allow seeing powerful sources - quasars on distances compared to distance up to horizon". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 124), m - mass of a photon or neutrino, M - mass of the Universe. From (29.1.1) we shall discover mass of the Universe:
By substituting in (29.1.2) numerical values, we shall receive mass of the Universe equal not less than 1.275×1056 g and at its volume 3.547×1084 cm3, density of the Universe should be not less than 3.59×10-29 g/cm3, that six times exceeds critical density (6×10-30 g/cm3) at which one expansion of the Universe should be replaced with a collapse it. Density, retrieved by us, of the Universe in the present moment is undervalued (below it can not be in any case). There is no sense to speak about "rest mass", since "mass of motion" by anything from it does not differ, therefore mass of photons should be included in common balance of mass of the Universe, concerns and to a neutrino. In this case mass a neutrino and photons considerably will exceed mass of all remaining matter in the Universe.
Now it is necessary to find out, what physical reasons result in the next Big Bang after stage of a collapse of the Universe. Then we shall understand the mechanism of its oscillation. On modern notions the collapse is as a matter of fact nonreversible also all Universe owes (if the collapse is possible) collapsed in "a black hole". On it the evolution of the Universe should be finished. In modern notions about Big Bang there are two key deficiencies: 1. Why should be blasted out that owes collapses - you see a gravitational interaction resulting in to a collapse, nobody removes? 2. At explosion the matter should scatter as a spherical shell, inside which one almost anything is not present, and the observation display a uniform distribution of matter on the average in a visible part of the Universe (Metagalaxy).
1. At final stage of a collapse there should be a qualitative change collapsing of matter or processes neutralizing gravitational squeezing. New physics tenders at once two versions of compensation of a collapse - transmutation of neutral matter at nuclear density in a positively charged supernucleus at the expense of formation of protons from neutrons pursuant to the theory of a nucleus. And violation of motion a neutrino at density of matter compared to density of protons (1.85×1015 g/cm3), as a result of which neutrino on many orders reduce mass and consequently are capable to abandon collapses a body. There is in first case come up coulomb repulsion of parts of a supernucleus, which one on force on 36 orders exceeds a gravitational interaction, and is described by the similar formulas, i.e. the interchange of attraction with a repulsion is provided in any situation. "The ratio of dimensionless parameters, proportional squares of constants of strong, electromagnetic, feeble and gravitational interactions and describing "force" interactions of a proton with a proton at energy 1 GeV in a system of their centre of mass makes under the order of values 1:10-2:10-10:10-38". Physics of a microcosm, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1980, page 468. In the second case the matter "is volatilized" from of a collapses body at the expense of emitting a high-energy neutrino.
2. The Big Bang should be introduced, as the gradual efflux of matter from Protouniverse, instead of as non-recurrent event. And the efflux of matter in the beginning happens intensively, and these flows have vast energy (quasars on purlieus by the Universe), and with flow of time intensity of the efflux and the energy of flows descends before full exhaustion of energy of Protouniverse. The gradualness of the efflux of matter at Big Bang is promoted by that circumstance, that the parts of a supernucleus scatter with relativistic velocities, at which one metastable become not only nuclei of super heavy elements, but masses compared to masses of galaxies. At expansion of the Universe there is spraying supernuclei in all sides that causes peculiar velocities of the terms of a Metagalaxy and is the physical basis of the law of the Habble (velocity of components of a Metagalaxy changes from zero point in center of Big Bang up to speed of light on its periphery).
At first we shall recollect some experimentally established facts formulated in Stefan-Boltzmann and Wien laws. The Stefan-Boltzmann law:
where: T - integral emittance of an ideal black body, = 5.67×10-5 ergs×cm-2× sec-1× deg-4 - universal Stefan constant. Pay attention, that pursuant to a Stefan-Boltzmann law the radiation of a more heated body always is more, than less heated in any wavelength range since does not depend on a wavelength of radiation. For this reason is warm from a cold body is not transmitted to an ardent body spontaneously and the insulated system eventually comes to a temperature balance («thermal mors»).
The Wien law:
where: max - wavelength applicable to upper bound of emittance ideal black body, b = 0.2898 cm×deg - Wien constant. From the Wien law follows, that the more heated bodies beam considerably more short waves, than less heated, therefore they are chilled faster.
Thus, the mentioned above laws result in a unambiguous conclusion: a fixed insulated system “the thermal mors” because of equalization of temperature all of its members and termination of any processes, bound with a gradient of temperature expects. It is understandable, that in such system the spontaneous temperature drop below equilibrium is impossible. Simultaneously it is necessary to mark, that any links to a thermodynamics, which one frequently frolics some orthodoxes, considering cosmological problems are erroneous, since the thermodynamics at essential influencing of fields is inapplicable. For an example it is not necessary swarm up in space, it is enough to pay attention to a Earth's atmosphere. Under the laws of a thermodynamics all atmospheric gases should uniformly get mixed up and also uniformly to fill in all atmosphere with identical density. However, both density, and atmospheric composition vary with an altitude.
Reasons of cooling of the Universe after Big Bang official physics does not know. The explanation by «extension» of a wavelength of radiation together with the extension of the Universe does not maintain critics, since is completely dispossessed of physical sense and is not confirmed by the observation facts. From any star the radiation «dilates» with speed of light, but we is observed only red displacement of spectral lines, bound with mass of a star or Doppler effect, but not transformation of radiation in «relict». For such red displacement mass of a star or Doppler effect should be increased on many orders. Besides at «the extension of space» (effect sucked by orthodoxes from the finger) any objects should be dilated, but it does not take place (I consider, that it is time to stop mockeries at space and time). New physics sees a reason of the extension of the Universe in dispersion all of its parts on inertia after Big Bang.
The not simple answer to a simple problem «why the Universe is chilled?» is consist in nonstationarity by the Universe (though it and is an insulated system) thus is clarified that, the statement about cooling of all Universe is illconditioned. In chapter 24.8 is shown that the red displacement for photons distributed from an edge by the Universe to the center z = 339. In same chapter the error of the official formula of Doppler effect is shown resulting in to absurd outcome and the formula of this effect in new physics (see figure 24.8.2 and formula (24.8.4)) is offered. The formula (24.8.4) for a radiated frequency, directional forward on motion of a source (= 0) start a kind:
where: - radiated frequency of a fixed source, V - speed of radiant, C - speed of light. From the formula (184.108.40.206) it is visible, that the maximum increase of a radiated frequency is possible only in 2 times, if the source is gone with speed of light.
The formula (24.8.4) for a radiated frequency, directional back on motion of a source ( = ) start a kind:
Then at motion of a source with speed of light, back it «beams» a zero frequency, therefore, its red displacement in this direction is equal to infinitude.
On notions of new physics, the Universe was formed at explosion a supernucleus. «Temperature» in nuclear matter corresponds, approximately 8 MeV or ~1011 K (chapter 12.1). «Temperature» of relict radiation ~3 0K. Under these data, roughly speaking, the Universe has cooled down in 3×1010 times (the radiated frequency has decreased in as much times). Then from the formula (220.127.116.11) it is possible to find approximate speed of radiants, which one at the extension of the Universe always were on its boundary. It makes, approximately, 0.99999999997 from speed of light. Naturally, that in this case gravitational red displacement from edges of the Universe z = 339 can be leave outed.
On the basis of set up above, it is possible to present details of behavior of photons at the extension of the Universe.
On outside boundary of the Universe the speed of stimulus sources is almost peer to speed of light, therefore after themselves they leave relict radiation. The general gravitation of the Universe though impedes effectively peripheral sources, but can not reimburse of jet effect at decay of supernuclei debris so long as the supernuclei completely will not decay. Therefore behind front of the extension there is a relict radiation and dissolved supernuclei the formed galaxies which one generate own radiation in a broad diapason. Before front of the extension the photons with energy, approximately, 16 МeV are beamed, т.е they are capable to generate, in particular, electrons and positrons with large energy. The radiated forward photons very effectively brake debris of supernuclei and promotes their full decay. The matter, formed after decay, is capable not for long to move on inertia, at last, it stops and then the gravitational collapse of the Universe starts. At any moment of time the Universe represents an insulated system (eternally to exist), therefore any photon can not it abandon. The suspected behavior of photons near to conditional boundary of the Universe is shown on a figure 18.104.22.168.
Effect of depression of photons at heat change by a radiation.
All above mentioned partially explains occurrence of relict photons in the Universe, but depleting answer to this problem does not give. Besides the official notions about heat change by a radiation, set up in a start of chapter, appear also unsatisfactory.
On a figure 22.214.171.124 the curves of intensity of heat radiation of an ideal black body in a temperature dependence are shown: 1 - 6000, 2 - 8000, 3 - 10000, 4 - 12000, 5 - 14000. On an abscissa axis the wavelength of radiation in microns is lay off.
Above mentioned it is possible to illustrate by a model insulated system figured on a figure 126.96.36.199:
«Existence of life in the Universe is somehow interdependent to the fundamental physical laws depicting the device and behavior by the Universe». James Trefil. The encyclopedia «Nature of science. 200 laws of universe».
Religious fundamentals of anthropic principle. Here all is represented clear and understandable. The god, when has created the Universe, has taken into account, that it should be described by a rather large set of constants, the values which one can not deviate from optimal to ensure occurrence and existence of reasonable life. As to any totalitarian governor, god are necessary loyalists, untiringly trembling from pavor and delight before him. Only one problem defaces an idyllic picture: what for god was froliced the whole week with a space mote under a title the Earth, when by per saltum has created billions of galaxies with billions of planetary systems in each of them probably occurrence of reasonable life? This delicate question is left on conscience of theologists.
Birth of different monster from crossbreeding religious and scientific views on anthropic principle we shall not esteem.
Scientific fundamentals of anthropic principle. The representations of orthodoxes about sudden originating of the Universe from «singularity» basically do not differ from divine creation except that the set of main parameters of the Universe appears random, therefore, unsuitable for originating life. The distorted orthodox mind wonderfully knows how to find problems there, where them are not present and to complicate a problem up to such degree, that by its any more under force to untangle, therefore everyman is compelled to swallow a unsolved problem bodily. I already more than 30 years sit and I untangle these skeins one behind another. Now sequential queue has reached up to of anthropic principle. Considering, that the Universe has a beginning, and the constants of the Universe occur by a random image from anything, the official science drive in itself in a dead-end situation exit by which one advance the most manful imagination: it appears, that it is a lot of the Universe and among them always there will be one with parameters, eligible to us. And this delirium is called as science! (It call as feeble anthropic principle). For illustration of orthodoxes imaginations rather feeble anthropic principle I shall result in the quotation.
«How many universes exists?
If the Universe, on definition, contains all set real, whether it is possible in general to speak about the capability of existence many universes? One of the possible answers can become so-called «multiplicity of probabilistic worlds», forecast by a quantum mechanics: in particular, it is possible to address to experiment testifying to full unpredictability that, through what from two isometric holes the quantum particle will penetrate into «camera obscura» at experiment on research of an interference - just due to this on a back wall of the camera the known interference bands of the Fraunhofer will be arised. (In this occasion we look the comments of the author to chapter 23.6: 1. Double-slotted experiment of the Jung).
That though how logically to justify outcomes of observation, some of physics - theorists have offered alone, in their judgement, reasonable explanation happening: at each single «interplay» universe is disintegrated in twain and two literally indiscernible copies of a world will be formed. If so, simultaneously exists the great many of similar «masks» universe, similar interplays, formed as a result of incalculable set, with dual outcome is nonmeasurable, and at a macroscopic level all these universes exist separately from each other, however they still can «to communicate» by means of interplays at a quantum level. The English astronomer Martin Rees has entered in this case the term «multiuniverse» - that is it is universe, integrating in itself all incalculable set of interquartile worlds.
The concept multiple universe gives us natural explanation of feeble anthropic principle. It is possible, certainly to be set by a problem, why in our Universe were created conditions, favouring to origin of reasonable life. But it is much easier to accept, that among infinite number universes there should be a considerable number such, where the organic life is possible. So whether it is necessary to be surprised, what one of these universes, was came to us just right?» From this quotation it is well visible, that the official science already has ceased to content to criteria of science and was turn intoed wanton empty chatter.
Strong anthropic principle asserts, that the origin of life not only is possible, but is foregone. This principle of wide recognition has not received, since consider, that it cannot be tested.
Superstrong anthropic principle. To understand its sense, it is necessary to read all my monography and to comprehend the laws of new physics. Here I shall result in only brief conclusions concerning of anthropic principle. For the Universe is not present neither beginning, nor end, it indefinitely pulses saving eternally not only global constants (electric charge, gravitational constant and other). Eternally there are same positive protons and electrons. Everyone 30 billions of years in the Universe there is a life, including reasonable. Our incredibly far grandparents were same, as well as we (it is possible to assert, as birthmark on a cheek was same). The development and evolution of all components of the Universe is hardly determined and can not by any way deviate the rules. This rules was created not by the god, and laws of the nature and its existed and will exist eternally, therefore it is not sense to set a problem: whence it is all has arised?. In it consists superstrong anthropic principle and it does not require check.
The largest error of orthodoxes in the field of a cosmology is, that they, after religion, consider, that the Universe has date of birth from nothing. And nothing is notorious «singularity» without any reasons suddenly give birth to the Universe. This main error pulls behind itself the far-fetched problems, the solution which one requires even more fancy hypotheses. In outcome the orthodox science loses image of solidity and is transformed into empty chatter. Let's demonstrate it by several examples.
In chapter 29.1.2. «Anthropic principle» the consequences of sudden birth of the Universe are reviewed and is shown, that at cyclical eternal life of the Universe problems of the anthropic principle does not arise.
Logical consequent of sudden birth of the Universe is the identical number of the arisen particles and antiparticles. They owe dematerialized and be turn intoed photons, i.e. the orthodoxes in such Universe never will arise. To justify the existence in an inconsistency with own principles consider, that matter has arisen slightly more, than antimatter. It is one of favourite methods of official physics, if somewhere, sometime something it is a little more or less, it already opened door for the subsequent uncontrollable imaginations.
Alternative version of explanation, why we live in a material world and we do not collide with an antimatter is, that an antimatter by not having time to create photons at interplay with a matter was eliminated for any reasons so far, that the interplay has become impossible.
One more problem, bound with birth of the Universe is, that the Universe should be homogeneous, but as a matter of fact it is heterogeneous and except for galaxies and congestions of galaxies has general cellular galactic structure with large vacuum inside cells. Explanation standard: at first have arisen of a small non-uniformity, which one in further prolonged to grow.
Except for listed, there is still set of problems by and large bound with birth of the Universe and on them to stop we shall not be. All these problems demonstrate, that birth of the Universe never was, it is eternal.
In the chapters dedicated theory of elementary particles is shown, that the number of particles and antiparticles is identical in our world, that its general electroneutrality confirms also. Therefore separately antimatter anywhere is not present. In the chapters dedicated cosmology is shown, that the Universe should be heterogeneous, since the galaxies and their congestions grow out of decay of supernucleus splinters at loss by them of a metastable state.
Here there is a sense to consider transformation of energy and matter in each cycle of eternal life of the Universe.
As the Universe always black hole, therefore any energy losses are eliminated, that determines its eternal existence. When under operation of law of a universal gravitation the Universe collects to a place of new cycle, the potential energy of parts of the Universe is transformed into a thermal energy of a superdense body by diameter, approximately, equal orbit of Mars. Further thermal energy is spent for «fusion» (disintegration) of nucleuses of atoms and neutronization of protouniverse, thus there is an essential cooling, which one allows complementary compression protouniverse at the expense of a gravitation up to nuclear density. At nuclear density to electrons in a structure of neutrons (chapter 7.2.2.) becomes too closely and the part them is extruded to a surface protouniverse, and inside supernucleus from alpha-particles (chapter 12) is formed. To some extent outside shell precludes with a tearing of a supernucleus, but the electrostatic forces on 36 orders exceed gravitational, therefore grandiose «the Big Bang» is foregone, which one tears up all body protouniverse and scatters debris. These debris move with by relativistic speed and metastable, while the gravitation them slightly will brake. Follows the repeated decay with formation of galaxies and stars etc. Therefore «the Big Bang» is similar to large fireworks more. The zone of decaies of supernucleus is step-by-step displaced in a radial direction and now we observes it, as a zone of quasars. The neutron shell protouniverse during its extension has ultrarelativistic speeds, which one on many orders boost a gravitation and promote recomplementing of supernucleus in debris. After all the gravitation so decreases, that the formation of supernucleus becomes impossible, and the customary matter will be formed (augmenting the volume, approximately, in 30000 times: dust, stones, ice clumps, body of the epicyclic sizes. At the end neutron debris are disintegrated completely with formation of Hydrogenium cloud.
The described here notions of new physics do not require an invention of new hypotheses, and to notions of orthodox physics it is necessary to apply a razor of Occam, then from them nothing remain.
29.2. The formation "of black holes" is impossible
The solution of a problem "of black holes" lies in a microcosm, in particular, in behavior of atoms nuclei. Density of matter can not exceed nuclear density, but founders "of black holes" (J. Mitchell, P.S. Laplace) at the end of 17 centuries is erroneous figured, that density of matter at the expense of a collapse can reach infinite values. Within the framework of a general theory of relativity (GRT) K. Schwarzschild (1916), J.R. Oppenheimer and H. Snyder (1939) have formulated the theory of formation "of black holes" and since then followers of this theory piously trust in their reality. However properties of atoms nuclei uniquely indicate impossibility of formation "of black holes" and existence of matter with density above than nuclear density (~1014 g/cm3). The creators GRT and theory "of black holes" did not know properties of nuclei, and their modern followers do not see the general laws of behavior micro and macroworld.
Let's consider evolution of squeezing of matter, looking back on properties of atoms nuclei. At squeezing the gravitational energy is evolved, at the expense of which one the matter is warmed up and by that hinders with squeezing at this stage. In result on a in-between stage the hot dense stars (white dwarfs) will be formed. In process of cooling and further squeezing density reaches such values, that the electronic shells of atoms wrinkles, nuclei of atoms "are melted", the neutrons are shaped of protons and electrons and in space are radiated a neutrino. The neutron body is gradually shaped. Density it is significant less than nuclear density, connection between neutrons feeble. In this condition the neutron star represents a huge neutron drop with a high speed of rotation and powerful magnetic field. Further cooling and the squeezing of a neutron star results that its density comes nearer to nuclear density. At this density the matter can not consist of some neutrons, as it we apparent for nuclei of atoms. The part of neutrons is transformed into protons with radiation of electrons and the antineutrino (in nuclei is abided particular quantitative balance between protons and neutrons), and the exuberant neutrons are radiated in space shaping at the end protons and atoms of hydrogen. These processes we apparent at decay of heavy nuclei. In applying to space scales the neutron star starts to radiate in space two powerful jets of electrons and antineutrino, forming "radio ears". The exuberant neutrons are radiated from a surface and are transformed into a flow of protons and electrons, i.e. in clouds of hydrogen. Inside a neutron body the supernucleus is gradually shaped at reaching density 1014 g/cm3. As the electrostatic interaction on 36 orders exceeds gravitational, in any case the supernucleus will reach such critical sizes, that the gravitation any more can not retain it from explosion. On it the evolution of collapsing matter are finished not leaving any capabilities for formation "of a black hole", as its formation needs density for two order more on notions of official physics. Therefore all gamble around "of black holes" are erroneous and confirm an inaccuracy GRT, they are founded on which one.
Let's point some internal inconsistencies in notions of official physics concerning «of black holes». So-called «singularity» in the begining of birth of the Universe with extreme high density and extreme small sizes represents anything diverse, as «black hole» from which one anything to leave can not. From this point of view the Big Bang is impossible. If by any wonderful image the Universe all the same has become to be dilate, it is easy to count up, that during many millions years it will remain under gravitational radius, i.e. to remain «black hole» and its extension also it is impossible. Official physics does not have means for overcoming a gravitation «of a black hole». It considers, that the gravitation in «black hole» is such, that in the nature there are no forces capable to overcome it. One more inconsistency concerns detection «of black holes». The orthodoxes consider, that «black hole» finds out itself on gravitational impact on environment. However, the gravitational interaction on notions of official physics realizes by gravity waves and exchange of gravitons. And those and others can not move with superlight speed, therefore can not escape from of embraces «of a black hole». Thus, if «black holes» existed, they cannot be found out by any conceivable means.
New physics absolutely on diverse imagines formation and evolution «of black holes» and easily explains above-stated paradoxes. At once stipulate, that we shall to reason on a gravitation in the spirit of Newton and we shall not attract any of theoretical conglomerations of modern official physics. Just we were convinced that they internally are contradictory. I account for it to that physicists propagated it is too much, and for everyone natural desire to not disassemble a heap, and to add in it though something own.
Let's throw a rock up. If we will have not enough forces to impart it the first cosmic velocity, is apparent, that always suffice of forces to overcome attraction of the Earth at the moment of a upthrow. By achieving a definite altitude the rock will stay and will begin to drop back. Under the indicated condition we can throw rockss a countless number of times and any we shall not lose irrevocably. At the next oscillation of the eternal Universe there is that same. The explosion of a supernucleus (see applicable chapters of the book) easily overcomes a gravitation of the Universe as a huge body with nuclear density a dia to equal orbit of Mars, to what the Universe is represented from the point of view of new physics at the end of stage of a collapse. The Universe scatters in a blank space all time remaining «by a black hole» from the point of view of the external spectator, since at any moment evolution of the Universe the speed of light should not exceed of the first cosmic velocity for the Universe as a whole to ensure its eternal existence. In definite time the extension of the Universe stops also it starts to drop back all time remaining under gravitational radius («by a black hole»). Apparently, that the condition of formation «of a black hole» is a condition, that the force of a gravitational attraction of a photon of mass m to «a black hole» in mass M was more or peer to centrifugal force operational on a photon:
where: C - speed of light, G - gravitational constant, R - radius «of a black hole». As density «of a black hole» can not exceed density of nuclei, in (29.2.1.) is more friend mass «of a black hole» to express through its density :
The formula (29.2.2.) is criterion of originating and existence «of a black hole». By substituting here numerical value = 1014 g/cm3 and remaining world constants, we shall discover minimumly possible radius «of a black hole» 56.7 kms. The further collapse such «of a black hole» is impossible, in it the supernucleus will be formed and there is a Big Bang in a miniature. Mass by this «of a black hole» makes 38.4 mass of the Sun. The formula (29.2.2.) is possible rewrite as:
R2 0.3216×1028 g/cm or M/R 1.3469×1028 g/cm (29.2.3.).
By substituting in (29.2.3.) parameters of a representative core of a spiral galaxy (mass of 109 mass of the Sun, mean radius 300 parsecs) we shall receive M/R=2.149×1021 g/cm. These calculations demonstrate, that the cores of spiral galaxies became «by black holes» need or their mass to be increased in 6 millions time or radius to reduce in as much time. That the heart of a core of a galaxy has become «a black hole», as demonstrate similar calculations its mass should be more observed (~ 108 masses of the Sun at mean radius of an ellipsoid 3.5 parsecs) in million times. The quoted estimations demonstrate, that probability of formation «of black holes» in space small and perhaps alone potential candidates for this rank can be supermassive extinct stars. Under the observational data the most massive stars have mass about 50 masses of the Sun and the come nearer on mass to an theoretical limit approximately 60 masses of the Sun. It is not enough of such stars. From (29.2.3.) It is possible to find parameters «of a black hole» having mass of 50 solar masses. Radius will make it 73.8 kms and density will be 0.59×1014 g/cm3 that is very close nuclear density. Thus, the radiuses «of black holes» of the maximum and minimum size differ all on 17.1 kms. Therefore temperature «of a black hole» at a collapse from density 0.59×1014 up to nuclear density 2.07×1014 g/cm3 (see chapter 12) varies unsignificantly in relation to initial temperature. «The black holes», probably, will be formed in center of galaxies, specially of galaxies with active cores, quasags and quasars, but because of absence of reliable input datas for calculations we shall leave this problem opened. Other capabilities for formation «of black holes» in the modern Universe yet it is not visible. They will appear only in following cycle of new birth of the Universe.
How «black holes» long live ? There is, that on space scales all an instant. In chapter 29.7.3. is shown, what at temperature 6×109 K takes place proton transmutation of nuclei of all elements, the neutrons become «free» inside nuclei and have time of half-decay of free neutrons. This phenomenon does not depend on density of matter but only from its temperature and can originate at a collapse of space bodies long before formation «of a black hole» since at a collapse of a space body of mass 50 solar masses its temperature before formation «of a black hole» reaches 9×1013 K (see chapter 12.4.1.). Proton transmutation of nuclei approximately for 10 minutes transforms a space body in huge a gas-dust cloud in which one there are relativistic protons and electrons filling up most rigid cosmic rays, and also different debris of nuclei of initial elements and not had time to react nuclei. Thus, in «a black hole» the «cold» space body temperature which one less than 6×109 К can be transformed only. This «the black hole» practically instantaneously augments density up to 2.07×1014 g/cm3 and as is fast or outside of it or inside supernucleus will be formed that results in drop of an outside shell «of a black hole» so long as it will not leave from under gravitational radius and will not turn to a superdense star. If the supernucleus will be formed inside, there is a Big Bang in a small scale. In that and other case it is possible to find out superhigh-gravity transuranium elements. On this feature the explosion from proton transmutation of nuclei can be distinguished from explosion a supernucleus.
Thus, the analysis demonstrates, that «the black holes» if arise in rare cases, then vanish, therefore them are not present in the Universe at this stage of its evolution.
If to substitute in (29.2.3) mass and radius of all Universe from chapter 29.1, we shall receive M/R = 1.3476×1028, that confirms: the Universe - black hole.
It is easy to count up, what should be hypothetical supermassive object in the Universe, that the pressure at the expense of a gravitation has overcome a coulomb repulsion of nucleones. If this object has temperature below temperature proton transmutation (what difficultly to itself to ideate), its mass should exceed mass of 50 solar masses on 36 orders, i.e. to compound 50×2×1033×1036 = 1071 г, that on 15 orders exceeds mass of all Universe. This calculation uniquely demonstrates, that in the Universe there are no «black holes», as them the orthodox science understands. The objects of any conceivable mass can not tighten matter above than nuclear density.
In connection with a problem of «black holes» it is interesting to count up, what radius should be for a body with nuclear density, that the space protons at the expense of a gravitation deposited on a surface of this body and contacted to it with energy, characteristically for nuclear bonds 8 МэВ or 1.282×10-5 ergs. Let's take into account mass of a proton mp = 1.67248×10-24 g and gravitational constant G = 6.6726×10-8 dynes×cm2/g2. Energy of a gravitational attraction will be:
Nuclear density we shall accept equal=2×1014 g/cm3, and body of the spherical form of radius r and mass of M:
Let's substitute all in (188.8.131.52) and we shall find r = 3.7×105 cm = 3.7 kms. Such supernucleus with mass of M = 4.24×1031 g can be formed inside a space body with mass 0.83×1053 g pursuant to the formula (29.7.7) chapters 29.7. I shall remind, what mass of the Universe pursuant to chapter 29.1 makes 1.276×1056 g. Thus, at achievement of a critical mass of a collapsible body 0.83×1053 g, its supernucleus is capable spontaneously to grow up to a total absorption of all Universe.
Let's consider in more detail different stages of evolution of the Universe, thus it is necessary to mean and it will be clear on a course of an enunciating, that separation of evolution into particular stages conditionally. In a large degree they are overlapped and flow past simultaneously, therefore it is possible to speak only about a preferred direction of evolution in given area of space or Universe as a whole.
The collapse of a body of the Universe could be prolonged and further, but at reaching nuclear density inside this body, pursuant to the theory of a nucleus, the exuberant neutrons are transformed into protons on reaction: np+e-+, forming -particle and radiating high-energy electrons and electronic antineutrino. The internal part of a collapsing body is transformed into a supernucleus (fig. 29.3.1), which one as a result of a coulomb repulsion is clastated on a part, tearing all body of the Universe. As it was indicated earlier, the formation of a neutron body is completely impossible so long as nuclear density will not be reached at the expense of gravitation. From the theory of nuclei of new physics follows, that "to stick" to a proton there are more than two neutrons (tritium) it is impossible, despite of reliance of a modern physics of a capability it: "Though the nuclear interaction in a singlet state is insufficiently great to form a bineutron, it does not eliminate a capability of formation of a bound system consisting of large number one only of neutrons - of neutron nuclei. This problem requires further theoretical and experimental study. Attempts to find out on experiment of a nuclei from three - four neutrons, and also the nuclei Н4, Н5, Н6 have not given while positive results". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia ", М., 1976, page 284. Existence Не10 similarly is impossible, since on Не8 all capabilities for adding additional neutrons are exhausted: "During experiment (in Dubna) "have caught" in total about of one and a half millions nuclei helium-8 and any - helium-10. It allowed to suspect, that the nuclei, so crowded with neutrons, are too inconsistent; they if will be formed, only on is nonmeasurable short time". V. Stanicin, Helium-10: One more attempt, Chemistry and life, № 3, 1983, page 6. Thus enter a glaring contradiction not only with the experimental facts of absence of nuclei consisting of one neutrons, but also with the own theory -decay, that is well visible from the following quotation. "From the theory of evolution of stars follows, that for massive stars at the end of evolution the gravitational squeezing of matter up to very high densities (gravitational collapse) is possible. Thus the condition should be reached, when the neutrons become more stable of protons and there is a transmutation of protons and other atomic nuclei in neutrons (neutronization). It is connected that at high-density matter the electrons will formed degenerate gas. Energy of "degenerate" electrons is so great, that mass of such electron, equivalent
That the coulomb repulsion of separate parts imparts to them torque, as shown in a figure 29.3.2.
The rotated chunks of a supernucleus scatter in the miscellaneous sides with relativistic velocities contributing to their metastability more and more and more being divided on a way on the same mechanism. In the whole process resembles combustion of a Bengal fire spraying "sparks" - the future congestions of galaxies and galaxies. "In accessible observations of area of space apart up to thousand mega parsecs is about billion of galaxies. Thus, the Metagalaxy is, first of all, world of galaxies". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 117.
The process collapses of a body of the Universe is prolonged, simultaneously repeating a described situation multiply. That concerns and to the torn off chunks of matter, since mass them with a large reserve is sufficient for embodying a small collapse. Thus, each chunk of the Universe intensively "boils" scattering on a way more and more small-sized parts, which one do that most. Therefore Big Bang is represented by large fireworks faster. It is possible to term this period of expansion of the Universe as epoch of supernuclei.
"In conclusions from observations the developmental effects should be taken into account - number of galaxies and their parameters in past could be absolutely others. On it, in particular, indicates that fact, that on distances about several billions of light years many quasars are revealed, and is closer 1 billion of light years it is few of them. All this, and also the poor survey accuracy hinders with the sure definition of parameters of model from observations. A role L-term till now is not known, even a sign of curvature of space, let alone more thin details of model is not determined...". Ibidem, page 132. This quotation sounds, as a dead march GRT.
The splitting of supernuclei results in appearance of all element of the table of the Mendeleyev and their every possible isotope, including short-lived and far transuranium. Now in a cosmology there are physical notions, on which one the elements heavier iron-nickel could be formed.
"Bypassed nuclei - steady atomic nuclei, which one can not be, received neither at sluggish, nor at fast process of neutron capture... The existence of bypassed nuclei has large value for a nuclear astrophysics, since urges to search and to explore processes of formation of heavy nuclei irrelevant with capture of neutrons". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 395.
"On modern notions the heavy elements will be formed in reactions of capture of neutrons. Usually distinguish sluggish (s) and fast (r) processes of capture of neutrons. These two mechanisms differ by the ratio of time -decay and capture of neutrons . At /<<1 in a chain of processes of formation of heavy elements will be involved only stable and the -radioactive nuclei with large half-life periods. At />>1 in process of formation of heavy elements will be involved the great many -radioactive nuclei with short half-life periods". Subatomic physics, The Moscow University, 1994, page 114. Easier speaking, on these notions the neutrons should be immersed by a nucleus faster, than the nucleus is disintegrated. The powerful natural neutron-sources close up from irradiated matter (neutron is non-stable) are indispensable for this purpose. If the similar conditions in space can be invented, the elements up to iron "want" to receive neutrons, and heavier do not wish it to make, since this process is unprofitable. It expresses in a very small capture cross-section of neutrons, and if the capture cross-section is great, the neutron capture results not in formation of a heavier nucleus, and to decay initial. On it all nuclear energetic is grounded. Therefore similar notions do not remove a problem of formation of nuclei heavier iron.
The point of view is most widespread, on which one the heavy elements were formed at flashes of stars of a first generation and the presence them on the Sun indicates that it is a star of a second generation.
"Whence then the heavy elements have appeared on the Sun? Even of lead quite noticeable quantity on it. Note the formation of elements is heavier iron Fe56 energy it does not pay: at formation of heavy elements the defect of masses changes a sign. Recollect a radioactivity; about an autodecomposition of elements it is heavier than uranium. The answer is, that the Sun - star of a second generation. On modern concepts the evolution of stars flows past in two stages. At first from protostellar of matter consisting of three quarters of hydrogen and a quarter of helium on mass, the stars of a first generation will be formed. It is massive stars, and the reactions of a proton cycle pass in them rather fast. At last, in their center of hydrogen remains a little and the combustion is suspended. The star contracts, pressure and temperature in it sharply will increase and starts "to flame" helium. It is a crucial moment of a star history. If mass it was rather large, the synthesis of elements at this stage happens explosionwise: the matter is warmed up to temperatures in hundred millions degrees, pass and energy unprofitable fusion reactions of heavy elements, but star is blasted out. Thus both hydrogen and the heavy elements are diffused in the Universe". A.V. Bialko, Our planet - Earth, "Science", М., 1989, page 112-113.
The notions of new physics, on which one all elements of space will be formed at decay of supernuclei it are introduced more logical, as against enunciated, for the following reasons. 1. Nothing having against stars first and second generation, which one will be truly permanently formed, reach in the evolution by reaching the red giant and depleted a reserve of hydrogen collapses with formation of a supernucleus, spraying again matter original of a compound (inhibitory share of hydrogen, then helium and rather small amount of remaining elements), it is necessary to mean, that be the official version of this process valid, after stars of a first generation in space there should practically be absent hydrogen, since it "will burn out" in them. 2. It is not clear, why the star in which one flow past expedient reaction of thermonuclear synthesis is not blasted out - the reaction goes slowly, and in a star, in which one the unprofitable reactions of formation of heavy elements, these reactions should flow past very fast with explosion. 3. Behind shortage of time from Big Bang stageness: stars of a first generation - star of a second generation is impossible and faster it is necessary to consider a contemporaneity of these processes. 4. The described mechanism too does not explain formation of elements heavier iron on those the reasons - instability of heavy nuclei.
The exuberant protons in nuclei of isotopes pursuant to the theory of a nucleus are radiated predominantly in a free kind or as -particles and inside nuclei of isotopes are transformed into neutrons on reaction: pn+e++. Thus, in epoch of supernuclei the Universe is dilated pursuant to the law Habble. "The spectral researches have shown, that the ratio v=H×r (where v - velocity of removal, Н - constant of the Habble, r - distance up to a galaxy) - law Habble - more precisely is executed not for separate galaxies, and for their congestions, since thus average random components of velocities of separate galaxies of a congestion". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 118.
Simultaneously Universe is charged with electrons, positrons (accordingly, and photons at their annihilation and during disintegration of supernuclei), neutrino and antineutrino, protons, -particles (nuclei of atoms of helium) and in much smaller quantity by all possible isotopes of all elements. "In the nature exist a neutrino with values of energies () in a huge interval: from a relict neutrino with ~10-4 eV, filling, according to model of the hot Universe, all space with density ~200 cm-3, up to a neutrino, bearing in impacts of cosmic rays with nuclei of interstellar medium and having energy down to 1020 eV". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 272.
"The cosmic rays term rays, coming on the Earth from space. This radiation feebly depends on a time of day or night, irrelevant with a position of any stars on a firmament, therefore consider, that the cosmic rays come from any points of Space with identical intensity... The cosmic-ray intensity spread westward is more than a cosmic-ray intensity spread in eastern direction (the east - western anomaly). The anomaly is connected to the nature of a space radiation. It speaks that the number of positive particles in a space radiation is more than number of negative particles". N.I. Kariakin etc., Brief manual on physics, "Higher School", М., 1962, page 489-490.
Each supernucleus will forms around of itself a galaxy. "By 1983 due to the researches, held by several initiative groups, with usage of detectors for recording glow around of quasars, was finally established, that the quasars really are centers of galaxies". P. Hodge, Galaxies, “Science”, Moscow, 1992, page 144.
It is possible to count up radius of supernuclei generator cosmic rays, filed by us, on the basis of the test data on cosmic rays, the energy of protons in which one reaches values 1021 eV. "Cosmic rays - charged particles of high energy, coming of interstellar space. In structure cosmic rays the protons predominate. There are also nuclei of helium and heavier elements, down to nuclei of elements with Z»30. Electrons cosmic rays in hundreds times it is less, than protons (in the same range of energies). The kinetic energy of particles reaches huge value, down to Ек~1021 eV. By main source cosmic rays the supernew stars serve". E.N. Sluta etc., Comparative planetology, "Science", М., 1995, page 40.
Number of protons n in a supernucleus of mass M consisting from a-particles (if to neglect a difference of masses of protons and neutrons): n=M/2mp, where mp - mass of a proton. Mass of a supernucleus: M=4×r3× /3, where r - radius of a supernucleus, and - its density (1014 g/cm3). Substituting these ratio in the formula determining energy of a coulomb repulsion of a proton Ер from a supernucleus: , we shall discover radius of a supernucleus:
Under this formula is received, that so grandiose energy the proton of cosmic rays receives at a separation from a supernucleus of radius only 7×10-6 cm (atomic weight of such supernucleus about 1023). Similarly it is possible to count up, that at radius of a supernucleus 1 m and drop of 1 kg of matter per one second, the energy of dispersion will make 1.73×1050 ergs/sec. Such power will be radiated approximately 1 billion years. For matching we shall put a radiation energy most of active space objects: quasars (quasags) - 1047-1048 ergs/sec supernew stars - 1040 ergs/sec, N-galaxies - 1043 ergs/sec new stars - 1046 ergs as a whole on a flash. These calculations do not claim for accuracy, but convincingly confirm, that the supernucleus is such power source, it is enough which one with of a large reserve not only for explanation of high activity of space objects, but also for explanation of Big Bang.
In result in the Universe there are rotated clouds of gas possessing except for velocity run-up also so-called peculiar velocities in the most miscellaneous directions. Simultaneously to diffusion of matter from supernuclei there is also condensation it under activity of gravitation. Thus the molecules generator motes will be formed, which one at further condensation and the sticking create more and more large space bodies. The similar processes enough are detailed, and on them explicitly to stop does not cost (see chapter "Formation and constitution of a solar System").
Despite of short of the introduced scheme of expansion of the Universe, apparently, that in it there is no place to antimatter as separate space formations. Earlier was shown, that the equality of matter and antimatter in the Universe means equality of positive and negative electric charges in it, i.e. its general electro neutrality. The antimatter separately is not present in the Universe, and never was. The modern cosmology attempts to explain a skew of the Universe in the side of formation of protons and electrons in injury to antiprotons and positrons by some excess first in a start of Big Bang. "There is a hypothesis, that excess of nucleons was not, but the nucleons and antinucleons were arranged in space nonuniformly, so there are areas of the Universe built from an antisubstance (of antimatter). In this case on boundary of areas from matter and the antimatter should flow past annihilation processes generating g-radiation. To find out such radiation with the demanded characteristics it was not possible. Other reliable observation data for the benefit of a hypothesis of existence of "antiworlds" also are not present". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 129.
It is easy to show, that in uniformly filled matter space as a result of operation of law of a universal gravitation any cavity aims to be dilated. It results to cellulateness by the Universe as in rather small scales (for example, a Crab-like nebula - result of a rather recent flash of a supernew star) and in scales of the Universe as a whole. Therefore common homogeneity of the Universe (distribution of galaxies in it) in more small scale is heterogeneous as at the expense of congestions and super congestions of galaxies in result of "spraying" of supernuclei of different mass and at the expense of empty places, in which one chunks of the dilated Universe which one have not got also are extra incremented at the expense of a gravitation. "Together with these discoveries the comprehension has come that galaxies is not simply objects, which one are sometimes agglomerated in congestions (congestions will be formed not at the expense of "accumulating", and at the expense of formation from one parent chunk of a supernucleus - V.K.). Instead of it has appeared, that, at any rate, in some parts of the Universe, the galaxies will forms a net with large vacuum in interspaces between them". P. Hodge, Galaxy, "Science", М., 1992, page 119.
"...Is shown, that of the most wide scale non-uniformity in distribution of galaxies have "cellular" character. In "walls of cells" there are a lot of galaxies, their congestions, and inside - vacuum. The size of cells about 100 Mps, thickness of walls 3-4 Mps. The large congestions of galaxies are in nodes of this cellular structure. The separate fragments of cellular structure sometimes term as super congestions. The super congestions frequently have the prolate form like threads". I.D. Novikov, Evolution of the Universe, "Science", М., 1983, page 47. A starting point of explanation cellulateness by the Universe can be and motion of supernuclei on a screw line, i.e. "the walls of cells" are "track" of motion of a supernucleus.
Hardly in large scales could the gravitational interaction in time from Big Bang though how organize space systems. Therefore it is radially - fibre also cellular structure of a Metagalaxy is a corollary of increase of velocity disbanding from center to a periphery. By drawing congestions of galaxies on flat gum and stretching it in all sides, we shall see just such structure.
As in stage of expansion of the Universe the energy of Big Bang is proportioned on an incremental volume of the Universe and thus the energy is transformed into matter, is logical to admit, that in this stage of evolution mean density of the Universe remains practically to stationary value and equal 3.59×10-29 g/cm3. Then the connection of mass of the Universe with its radius will be expressed by a simple ratio:
The interception of a straight line (29.2.2) and hit in area of a collapse at invariable rcr is guaranteed by prolongation of formation of matter from energy, which one in the Universe has enough at any moment of time. The difference is, that in an expansion region there is an intensive formation of matter, and in a critical state (point К fig. 29.3.3) formations of matter are slowed down sharply. Under some independent data (E.N. Sluta etc. Comparative planetology. М., "Science", 1995, page 11) it was finished, approximately, 3.9 billions years back - period of sharp decrease of intensive meteoritic bombardment. It confirms also sharp decrease starformation in the Universe. Thus, we in the present moment are near to a critical point or already have passed it no more than 4 billions years back. Naturally, that a collapse we still shall not long note because of long-lived presence of the Universe near to a critical point and that a periphery of the Universe we apparent too young, namely the process of a collapse starts with a periphery pursuant to the law of world attraction.
Let's discover some relevant ratio for enunciated notions. Equating force on the second Newton's laws to force of world attraction, we shall discover that during expansion negative acceleration of a body on boundary of the Universe:
Let's substitute (29.3.2) in (29.3.3):
Deciding a differential equation (29.3.4), we shall receive a subproduct:
connection of velocity of expansion of the Universe depending on its radius. From (29.3.5) we shall discover connection between time of expansion and radius of the Universe:
From (29.3.6) at r=rcr and at rcr=10 billions light years the common time of stage of expansion of the Universe will make tcr=15.7 billions years. From (29.3.6) we shall discover, as radius of the Universe depends on time:
By substituting (29.3.7) in (29.3.2), we shall receive relation of mass of the Universe to time:
rcr we shall discover from a requirement of interception (29.2.2) and (29.3.2): , whence:
The numerous observation facts indicate rather large abundance in the Universe of gravidynamic objects. The matter obturated at the expense of a gravitational collapse, considerably increase speed rotation, since the common angular momentum remains to stationary values. It results in acceleration of a collapse and passing it under the script of a small dynamic collapse. In a result in center of gravidynamic object there is a supernucleus and strongest magnetic field. The greatest probability of origin of gravidynamic objects on a periphery of the Universe. It is connected that the chunks of a parent supernucleus at Big Bang having a maximum impulse, have also maximum torque. Therefore would be by an error to consider quasars and quasags as "young" galaxies. They in essence differ from internal areas of the Universe by that formed by them protogalaxies, are gyrated with huge velocity not scattering, and on the contrary contracting under activity powerful of a gravidynamic field. Besides the circumferential parts of the Universe scatter with a maximum relativistic velocity, therefore metastable. Thus, the small dynamic collapse for these objects strongly is expressed in matching with other objects of the Universe and the decay of a permanently nascent supernucleus is not capable to form a rather extended galaxy. At transmutation of neutrons into protons the relativistic electrons are radiated not uniformly in all sides, and as two opposite of directional jets because of a powerful magnetic field. In this case we apparent a radio galaxy, which one is between two "radio ears". "The observations on radio telescopes speak that for the majority "of active galaxies" (i.e. radiating radio waves, either X-rays, or that and another) is present of the small sizes powerful object in center. The intercontinental interferometers have allowed to establish, that these central formations are truly very small - less approximately 1/10 light years in a diameter. They appear by sources of large jets, usually released in two opposite directions, of matter and radiation". P. Hodge, Galaxy, "Science", М., 1992, page 133.
Gravidynamic objects of the smaller size can not form a supernucleus, i.e. their existence is not accompanied by rough outbreaks of matter, but we can identify them on huge rotation rate and powerful magnetic fields. Usually similar effects assign to "neutron" stars. The formation separate of gravidynamic object or of a gravidynamic system consisting of two objects, rotated around of common center of gravidynamic interaction after a gap of a supernucleus (for example, flash of a supernew star) is most probably. As against a microcosm, gravidynamic objects of a macroworld are basic unstable. The destiny them depends on mass of object and rotation rate (and orbital motion, if it a gravidynamic system). At rather large mass the evolution of gravidynamic object result in explosion of a supernucleus, and at poor mass for such outcome of force gravidynamic (and gravitational) the squeezing does not suffice and the fast rotated plasmoid or superdense solid body will be formed. They gradually lose energy at the expense of dissipative processes and, when gravidynamic the force of compression will become less centrifugal, the gravidynamic object is torn mechanically, throwing out in space debris with huge velocities. The well noticeable dissipative processes are watched for such of gravidynamic objects, as pulsars. "Change of a period the more considerable, than less age of a pulsar. For a pulsar of a Crab-like nebula, which one is the remainder rather recent (1054) flash of a Supernew star, the period is doubled everyone 2000 years...". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 451. "So, the apparent deceleration of a period of rotation of a pulsar NP 0532 should be accompanied by decrease of a kinetic energy of a star ~1038 ergs/sec that corresponds to a gross power of radiation of a Crab-like nebula presently". Ibidem, page 454.
It is necessary to affect the last problem, which one on this subject is an expansion of the Universe as a whole. The observation data (law Habble and definition of moving speed of the Earth and the solar Systems in the whole rather relict background of radiation) with all evidence demonstrates absolute motion from center of birth of the apparent Universe. "Random (? - V.K.) a fashion has appeared, that the vector of absolute speed of the Sun lies practically in a plane of Earth orbit. Therefore in winter the orbital velocity of the Earth is added to absolute speed of the Sun, and summer is subtracted from it. Therefore, the absolute speeds of the Earth in the summer and winter should differ on 60 kms/сек, and the temperatures of relict radiation in a direction to constellations Lion and Aquarius should differ on 0.54 mK. The matching of measurements of December, 1980 and July, 1981 has shown difference of temperatures of relict radiation, rather close theories. Is thus measured not only absolute speed of the Earth, but also its year changes. As galactic orbit of the Sun is known, it is possible to find and velocity of absolute motion of a Galaxy. For this purpose it is necessary to subtract vector of an orbital velocity of the Sun from vector of its absolute speed. The absolute speed of a Galaxy appears equal approximately 600 kms/сек". A.V. Bialko, Our planet - Earth, "Science", М., 1989, page 24.
The same data indicate the same point of space, where the Universe "was born". "Knowing absolute speed of a Galaxy vabs.Gal, we can in essence points a point in the modern Universe, whence has arrived our Galaxy, point, where there was a matter of a Galaxy at the moment of Big Bang. The direction on it is somewhere in constellation Pegasus (certainly, only direction, instead of stars of constellation). Distance up to this point is approximately equal t0×vabs.Gal 2×1024 m". Ibidem, page 26.
"The matching of galaxies of a field with galaxies of congestion in a Virgo displays, that the Local group drops on center of a super congestion in a Virgo with velocity about 290 kms/сек. Other combinations of distances up to galaxies and their motions result in value of 255 kms/сек for moving speed of Local group approximately thus a current of traffic. The space background radiation, unclosed in 1965 recognized by relict radiation of epoch of a beginning of existence by the Universe, too demonstrates an anisotropy of the approximately same value and approximately in that a direction". P. Hodge, Galaxies, "Science", М., 1992, page 126.
The orthodoxes nevertheless can not say goodbye to a relativity of motions, though can not already result weighty arguments in protection of the views, and the presented reasons are similar to spells faster.
On a figure 29.4.1 the approximate saw-edged curve of evolution of the Universe is figured. In a conditional point O there was a Big Bang and debris of the Universe begin to scatter with almost light velocity С. Law an energy conservation requires, that the total of general energy of the Universe E (should be possible to express which one in a mass equivalent: m=E/c2) and gravitational mass M (can be expressed which one in an energy equivalent: W=Mc2) remained a stationary value:
The formula (29.4.1) displays, that at expansion of the Universe its gravitational mass is incremented at the expense of transmutation of energy into matter, and at a collapse decreases at the expense of transmutation of matter into energy. Naturally, that the full interconversion is impossible. For example, for a neutrino the ratio of energy to mass is maximum, and for a proton this ratio is minimum.
In accessible to observations of a part of the Universe (Metagalaxy) the velocity of removal of extragalactic objects is approximately proportional to distance up to them:
where H – constant of Habble (~55 kms/sec×Мps), H-1~5.5×1017 sec ~18 billions years; S - distance up to object. In (29.4.2) under V it is necessary as a matter of fact to understand V, since we measure not absolute, and relative (beam) velocity.
where c - speed of light.
By dividing (29.4.2) on (29.4.3), we shall discover negative acceleration at expansion of the Universe:
a=H×c=5.45×10-8 cm/sec2 (29.4.4).
Equating the second Newton's laws and law of gravitation, we shall discover expression for acceleration of a body, which one is on an edge of the Universe:
where G - gravitational constant, M - mass of the Universe, R - radius of the Universe.
From the formula (29.4.5) it is visible, that at a stationary value to mass of the Universe the acceleration can not remain to stationary values and decreases on an absolute value in inverse proportion to a square of distance up to a centre of gravity. This case concerns to single-pass Big Bang with an after expansion of the Universe on inertia. If mass of the Universe after Big Bang will grow proportionally to cube of distance up to center (that corresponds invariable in time of mean density of the Universe), the negative acceleration will grow proportionally to radius of the Universe. That the negative acceleration at expansion of the Universe remained to stationary values and corresponded to the law Habble, mass of the Universe at expansion should grow proportionally to square of radius of the Universe. Thus, the law Habble as a matter of fact asserts, that together with expansion of the Universe on inertia after Big Bang mass of the Universe so simultaneously grows, that its mean density gradually decreases.
Examining the Universe from inside, we discover, that it is extends with deboosting (see chapter 29.4) and on value of this deboosting we can count up time from Big Bang before dead stop of the extension, which one will make 17.4 billions years. Accordingly, radius of the Universe at dead stop of the extension will make 8.7 billions light years, then the collapse will begin. Thus, the picture of the Universe from inside is represented to us rather clear.
To be disassembled, that we shall see or we shall not see outside of the Universe, the rectification of a gravitational interaction is necessary. Official physics considers, that «the black holes» exhibit themselves by a gravitational interaction with an environment, for example, seizes a space material, thus the X-radiation is watched, bend light rays of distant stars («gravitational lens») etc. That not noting, orthodox physicists as it as a matter of fact is recognized propagation of a gravitational field much faster by speeds of light. Really, if a gravitational field (or «the gravitons») were diffused with speed of light, neither field, nor the hypothetical gravitons could not abandon «a black hole», as it not be made by photons. New physics considers, that the gravitational field is diffused with indefinitely by a high speed because of absence of mass, therefore for it there are no limitations for the maiden or second solar escape velocity, as it we is observed for particles having some mass, for example, neutrino or photons. In chapter 29.2 is shown, that the formation «of black holes» in the Universe is extremely improbable, and if they and arise, on very short time.
At the same time, the Universe as a whole always represents «a black hole» (chapter 29.1), both during the extension, and at a collapse before new Big Bang, that provides its infinite existence in time. Therefore outside of the Universe we nothing could see. The problem on existence «others universes» is automatically removed. If they existed, largest of them is indispensable has occluded step-by-step at the expense of a gravitation all remaining for infinite time. Is received, that «others universes» do not exist.
Comments of the author to chapter 29.4.1:
1. «Standard models» - uniform for brains.
Powers that be prefer identical homagers - them is more lighter to control, as the soldiers. Therefore man from this or that category military, clergymen, officials, politicians or scientists, as soon as he is officially entered in it any more can not consider itself as the free person and is compelled to obey to definite rules as a matter of fact prohibiting the personal initiative, differently will be «reduced to the ranks» and will be deprived with advantages of his society. To dress a uniform on brains of the scientists the ingenious method - standard models is invented. There is a «standard» model of a star, Universe, plate tectonics and set others. Try to deviate standard model and yours career on it will be finished. Therefore it is necessary to select: or to live affluently inside «of standard models» or to die mute and in poverty as the independent explorer.
1. The Universe after Big Bang should be expand with negative acceleration because of a gravitational interaction all of its parts. But the observations demonstrate, that the further objects of the Universe are arranged from us, the the greater red displacement of spectral lines they demonstrate. If to explain this displacement by Doppler effect, is received, the further objects of the Universe are arranged, the they leave from more fast us, that contradicts common sense, since these objects after Big Bang moving on inertia, i.e. in a slowed-up way.
2. The miscellaneous values of a constant in the law Habble, obtained in miscellaneous time and miscellaneous researchers indirectly indicate an inaccuracy of this law. After discovery of quasars this error has become apparent if to compare a figure 184.108.40.206, demonstrating a validity law Habble on relation of red displacement to visible stellar magnitude (proportional spacing interval) for brightest of galaxies of agglomerations and same relation for quasars on a figure 220.127.116.11, where the straight line is copied from a figure 18.104.22.168. The data are borrowed from the book: I.D. Novikov, Evolution of the Universe, М., 1983, page 27 and 63.
Naturally, that some time the space objects born from debris of a supernucleus will prolong an inertial motion in spite of the fact that the force of world-wide attraction effectively brakes their motion. As a whole, the described picture as if confirms the Habble law if not to allow of some oppositions set up below. Fast driving peripheral of a supernucleus debris are metastable, but under operating of negative acceleration there comes the moment, when they lose repeatability and are disintegrated. On this spacing interval from center of the Universe we is observed quasars and quasags. The rotated debris at first will forms the intercepted galaxy with numerous satellites from more small-sized splash of a supernucleus, and is weakly rotated - elliptic galaxies. Behind a zone of quasars we nothing shall see, since here objects beam forward on motion, and to us the radiation misses (chapter 24.8). Besides these objects are effectively braked not only at the expense of a gravitation to center of the Universe, but also at the expense of braking recoil at radiation of more vigorous photons in a current of traffic (chapter 29.5.1). Thus, the zone of quasars was radially diffused from center of the Universe, in due time has give birth to also us, and now is on outskirts by the observed Universe. This zone always marks purlieus by the Universe in process of its extension. In back of a zone of quasars the activity of galaxies rather fast die to dictum away, in a weakly degree being supported only in cores of galaxies. Here space objects can some time move only on inertia since the effect of jet propulsion disappears together with the termination of supernuclei decay. Therefore for galaxies having the red displacement Z = 0.003 ¸ 0.3, the figure 22.214.171.124 formally confirms a validity of the Habble law.
where r0 - radius of the Universe, r - current radius, z - red displacement.
Correctly to use the formula (126.96.36.199) it is necessary to understand, that the maximum gravitation of the Universe is watched on it outskirts similarly, how the maximum gravitation of ground is watched on its surface. In process of deepening in ground the gravitation decreases and receives zero value in center of the Earth. Therefore at motion of a photon to a surface of the Earth it will be «show blue» since is diffused from area of a weakly gravitational field in area strong. At intersection of a surface of the Earth and further advance to its center (in deep mine) the photon will be «to blush» pursuant to the formula (188.8.131.52). Precisely same its behavior in the Universe with that only by difference, that a photon can not move from the outside, but only from boundary of the Universe inside to center, where, approximately, we are, therefore always «blushes» at such motion. Under the data of the book: P. Hodge, Galaxies, М., 1992, page 148 of most of all observed quasars have red displacement Z = 2 ¸ 3, with Z > 3.5 it is few of them, and with Z < 2 too very little. Let's plot the chart z=f(r0/r) for the indicated data under the formula (184.108.40.206) (figure 220.127.116.11).
The figure 18.104.22.168 is similar to a figure 22.214.171.124 with that difference, that on an abscissa axis it is possible directly to read out spacing interval from the spectator up to any point of the Universe, the edge corresponds to which one r/r0 = 1. We see, that the quasars are as a lamina and are arranged approximately on one spacing interval from us.
The Habble law is stated as follows (Physics of space, М., 1976, page 118):
where H – Habble constant.
Here it is necessary to mark following relevant circumstance. As main argument of red displacement at the expense of Doppler effect consider experimentally demonstrated persistence of relation / on all an extent of an electromagnetic spectrum (O. Struve etc., Elementary astronomy, М., 1967, page 421). Any other explanations of red displacement contradict this fact. However gravitational reason of the red displacement which has been set up in this chapter also has an independence property of relative change of a wavelength of radiation at the expense of red displacement from energy of this radiation. Besides the gravitational red displacement gives the same value «to a constant» of Habble, which one is obtained officially. Therefore gravitational red displacement is almost ideally masked off under the Habble law.
Thus, it is possible to make a main conclusion: the red displacement of remote objects is conditioned not by that they move the faster, than further are (it is nonsense from the point of view of common sense), and that they beam on definite spacing interval from the spectator. Thus their proper motion can not demonstrate so considerable red displacement because of general negative acceleration of the extension of the Universe, i.e. the effect of gravitational displacement considerably overlaps Doppler effect (if those is), specially on large spacing intervals from center of the Universe. An indirect proof of this conclusion is that fact, that the local group of galaxies does not obey to the Habble law of linear dependence: red displacement - spacing interval (O. Struve etc., Elementary astronomy, М., 1967, page 419). The gravitational red displacement as against the Habble law establishes almost monosemantic connection between relative red displacement of a source of spectral lines and position of this source in the Universe.
Prima facie it seems that to separate gravitational red displacement from Doppler effect it is impossible. However it not so. On observed red displacement under the formula (126.96.36.199) we shall discover r in fractions of radius of the Universe, if r0 to accept for unit. Further it is necessary to know precise spacing interval up to interesting space object, then it is easy to define radius of the Universe. If the Doppler effect has not essential value, all values of radius of the Universe obtained by a similar way should coincide, i.e. it is possible to define «standard» radius of the Universe. Then all deviations from «standard» radius are connected to Doppler effect, it is possible to distinguish which one in the pure state. Thus, the independent definition of spacing interval up to space objects again becomes actual.
One more independent evidence of an inaccuracy of the Habble law consists in following. The relative red displacement of spectral lines on wavelength observed and laboratory 0 is determined so:
if a wavelength of radiation to express through frequency , we shall receive:
The effect of the Doppler on official physics (see chapter 24.8) is determined by the formula:
and new physics gives for it expression:
In chapter 24.8 is shown, that the official formula results in absurd outcome at radiation in a current of traffic of a source (= 0). Backwards ( = ) in this formula the common sense is saved (at V C, 0; at V 0, 0).
At = (we receive radiation from a source, escaping from us) (188.8.131.52) and (184.108.40.206) with the registration (220.127.116.11) will give
under the theory of new physics
Further, to receive the Habble law, the orthodoxes will use following fraud in act. At V << C the expression (18.104.22.168) will be converted to a kind:
whence is received, that the red displacement is directly proportional to escape velocity of a stimulus source, it is necessary only speed to express through the Habble constant and spacing interval up to object to receive (22.214.171.124). By the way, at V << C (126.96.36.199) gives too (188.8.131.52). As at z1 fraud in act at once finds out, the orthodoxes refer to a special relativity theory. We shall not hide trumps in a sleeve, and we shall lay out them at once on table. On a figure 184.108.40.206 curves 1 are demonstrated by the graph of the formula (220.127.116.11), and curve 2 - graph of the formula (18.104.22.168).
From a figure it is visible, that the connection of red displacement from a running speed of a source is not much linear, therefore Habble law is not valid neither from the official point of view, nor from the point of view of new physics. Besides at z 0.3 substantial speeds of a stimulus source are significant less, than counted up on the official formula of Doppler effect, therefore it is necessary to introduce the essential corrections to the adherents of the «dilative» Universe.
Here opportunely again explicitly to consider the mechanism of decay of supernuclei after Big Bang. The first debris of a supernucleus moving almost with speed of light, at small reduction of a running speed their metastability fades and there is a repeated decay. Again formed debris appear metastable only in a radial direction from center of Big Bang at the expense of jet effect. Remaining practically stop (in matching with speed of light). Therefore without a large error it is possible to consider, that the radiation, received by us, outgoes from «fixed» sources, and the red displacement is conditioned by gravitational effect. The high luminosity of quasars confirms that fact, that we receive radiation from the at one time stopped debris of supernuclei, which one were intensively disintegrated in that moment.
Apparently, that star-formation happens simultaneously to formation of galaxies from those rotated with miscellaneous velocity and clouds of matter, possessing by own peculiar velocities, which one are thrown out at decay of supernuclei. "As to age, we have continuous sequence: star-formation was prolonged in all times. But that fact, that the majority of stars in our neighborhoods has arisen, apparently, in very early times, allows, I think, approximately to divide stars into two populations: it would be possible to term one, relevant to a flash star-formation in the beginning, and another, which one as the dieing away end of this flash". W. Baade, Evolution of stars and galaxies, "World", М., 1966, page 296.
In further activity of a core of a galaxy can be supported by continuous dropping of a material on it with periodic revertive outbreaks on the mechanism of decay of a supernucleus or of gravidynamic object. It is confirmed by the efflux of hydrogen from center of our Galaxy out. "Density of hydrogen is non-uniform, it will forms singular spiral sleeves. The expansion of hydrogen from center of a Galaxy is watched". N.I. Kariakin etc., Brief manual on physics, "Higher School", М., 1962, page 355.
In the chapter "Formation and constitution of a solar System" enough mechanism of formation planetary and satellite system around of a star explicitly was described. The similar approximately fashion happens also formation of galaxies. Thus on a periphery them the large masses of invisible matter not only as particles by the size more than 0.8 mms, but also large celestial bodies of the meteoritic, cometary and planetary sizes should place. Therefore calculations of motion of stars in galaxies find out invisible missing mass in them. At the same time motion of separate galaxies in congestions displays as though missing mass that the motion of galaxies is a corollary of spraying of matter from a supernucleus, and the time past from "birth" of the Universe has not enough for a full congruence with the law of world attraction. "In an astronomy there are some "of a white spots", in particular bound with a problem "of latent mass". Watching motion of stars in galaxies, we should explain their dynamics in view of mass of the galaxy and mass distribution inside it. However, attempting to make it, we discover that the results of theoretical calculations do not converge with the observational data; the business looks how if in a galaxy was more than mass, than till now it was possible to find out. Similarly at the analysis of motion of galaxies inside congestions there is an impression that the part of mass misses". Fundamental structure of a substance, "World", М., 1984, page 82.
That can be asserted and for stars which are included in a structure of galaxies. If from birth of a Galaxy the solar System has made only 20-30 revolutions around of center, it is completely not enough of it, that the Sun has taken stationary orbit, by losing an exited state. Therefore excess of mass in galaxies as a matter of fact it is even more, than it is supposed. Knowing an orbital velocity of a star in a galaxy and distance it from center is easy to count up mass of a galaxy inside orbit of a star. It is necessary still to allow and mass of planetary systems around of each star, though the common contribution from them is absolutely insignificant. Now about planetary systems of stars there is not enough of information, but in due course compulsion of a planetary system for each star will be demonstrated. "The key concern introduces a problem, whether other stars entering alongside with the Sun a huge sidereal system a Galaxy have planetary systems. Unfortunately, to see in a telescope for any star a planet, even so large as Jupiter, while it is impossible. But the presence of a massive planet should call oscillating motion of a star of rather common center of mass of both bodies. Such oscillations are detected already for several stars. In particular, it was possible to measure oscillation amplitude for one of most close to us of stars (star of Bernard in constellation Ophiucus) and to establish, that it has a dark satellite - planet, mass by which one only in 1.5 times more weight of Jupiter. Thus, it is possible now to consider presence of other "solar systems" in the Universe demonstrated". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 63.
In spite of the fact that developmental stages of development of the Universe practically go in parallel, all of us can point provisional duration of each of them. Apparently, the most long-lived stage of evolution of the Universe as a whole is termination its expansion and beginning of a collapse. It, certainly, does not eliminate expansion and collapse in "microsegments" of the Universe at any stage of its development. Similarly, how the comet on a high-eccentric orbit a main body of life carries out far from the Sun, and the Universe in a condition of transition from expansion to a collapse carries out, probably, about 10 billions years. Now we can not with confidence tell, whether the expansion of the Universe is prolonged or already about 4 billions years back it was replaced with a collapse. The business in that maximum intensity of a gravitational field of the Universe is on its periphery, therefore expansion is replaced by a collapse not at once on all space of the Universe, and in the beginning only in outside areas, while the internal areas prolong to be dilated on inertia. In result the Universe gains the form collapsing of a hollow orb and the formation of supernuclei in "shell" can happen long before full collapsing. The observation of horizon of the Universe can not confirm a begun collapse on that to the simple reason, that the horizon of the Universe we apparent more young on 10 billions years. The age of planets and meteorites is determined in 5 billions years. The age of the majority of stars should be by a negligible margin more, since the formation of stars and their planetary systems happens simultaneously. "Began starformation in all galaxies approximately simultaneously, as it is possible to judge on presence at them of classic spherical congestions and variable stars of a type RR Lyra". P. Hodge, Galaxies, "Science", М., 1992, page 152.
The time, past from formation of elements (decay of supernuclei) before condensation of matter in meteorites and comets being a building material of stars and planets, under the data about died out radioelements, makes of the order 0.3-1 billions years. "To the present time the great many of experimental data on properties of natural and artificial isotopes - atomic nuclei of different masses was accumulated. These data indicate that the natural synthesis of atoms was completed shortly before formation of a solar System". G.V. Voitkevich, N.E. Fedorova, Chemical elements in a solar System, "Knowledge", М., 1973, page 45.
"The special concern is introduced by positive anomaly of heavy isotopes of xenon in a sample of a meteorite Pasamonte. The age of this meteorite (under the contents Хе136 and U238) is determined per 2×1010 years. This value is unusual is overstated, as actually age of a meteorite Pasamonte (under the data strontium and argon methods) does not exceed 4.54×109 years. Enabling, that the excess Хе136 in a meteorite Pasamonte has taken place from spontaneous division died out Pu244, it is possible to calculate, that the time interval between the termination of a nuclear fusion and formation of a meteorite will make 300 millions years". Ibidem, page 50.
Thus, formation of elements in the Universe in basic (they and now will be formed at flashes of supernew stars) was completed not less than 6 billions years back. "The estimation of age of a Galaxy can be given also on the strength from time indispensable for formation of quantity, apparent in it, of heavy elements. Their synthesis was stopped, apparently, in our region of a Galaxy with formation of a solar System (i.e. 4.7 billions years back). If the synthesis has taken place suddenly, for rather short time, for formation of a modern ratio U238, U235, Pu244 and Th232 it should take place for 4-6 billions years before origin of a solar System, i.e. 9-11 billions years back. The relative brevity of a period of intensive synthesis is confirmed both analysis of relative composition of the indicated elements, and the astronomical data - starformation in a Galaxy was especially intensive in an initial stage. Thus, the age of a Galaxy, defined on synthesis of elements, makes from 9 up to 13 billions years". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 174.
It is necessary to concern to these results is cautious, since they can characterize not age of our Galaxy, and time, past after its last explosion (from a series those) at the expense of decay of a central supernucleus.
The official cosmology considers, that there were stars of a first generation, and then second, therefore dates of formation of elements for it is removed on 10-20 billions years back. "Now conventional is the point of view, that elements, from which one the solar System consists, was formed 10-20 billions years back, when the clouds of primary matter consisting predominantly of hydrogen and helium, have begun to be condensates in stars of a first generation. The squeezing of sidereal matter at the expense of gravitational forces results in temperature rise in center of a star, that condition for the beginning of thermonuclear reactions". Subatomic physics, The Moscow university, М., 1994, page 112. These views contradict presence on the Earth of radio-isotopes, which one for the indicated time for a long time should dissolve.
The notion about decay of supernuclei explains approximately identical age of galaxies, since decay has explosive character and flows past rather fast. "As soon as the astronomers have understood process of sidereal evolution and were learned to determine of age of stars (it it has become possible in the 50-th years), has appeared, that the galaxies of all types have approximately identical age. At each galaxy there are even some stars with age some billions of years. From here follows, that neither elliptical, nor the improper galaxies can not be upwards remaining". P. Hodge, Galaxies, "Science", М., 1992, page 18-19.
"The theory of formation of galaxies should explain a lot of the facts: distinction of galaxies on mass, form, brightness, value of a torque, activity of kerns etc. Now any of the theories does not give unequivocal and satisfactory throughout answer". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 131. The author hopes, that the further enunciating will give such answer.
The clouds, scattering in all sides, together with general expansion of the Universe will forms galaxies of the different form depending on an angular momentum, mass and other parameters of motion and this problem rather is detailed by a modern cosmology. Depending on mass which has stayed in a central part of clouds and velocity of its rotation drop of matter on a central body results in secondary formation of supernuclei and repeated outbreaks. To the present time in short-range galaxies the drop of matter to a central core of a galaxy and outbreaks of original matter is approximately balanced. For distant galaxies (quasars) the outbreak of matter exceeds drop to center, i.e. they are in stage of general own expansion and have not reached the yet not equilibrium sizes. That concerns and to galaxies with active cores. The form of galaxies first of all is determined by presence and power of a gravidynamic body in center organizing a degree of order of motion of the terms of a galaxy. If the gravidynamic body is not present, the galaxy will be bastard with the rather large contents of dust and gas, therefore at it there are young stars (such galaxies is numbers about 5 %, and they are meant by a figure Ir). Alone organizing by a gravidynamic start in such galaxy, which one promotes creation of a flat system, is the spin of a galaxy as a whole (for example, of a Magellan Clouds). As the very feeble rotation of galaxies is improbable, such type the improper galaxies make the majority in this class. If such body is, and it is insignificant and practically is not gyrated, the galaxy of the spherical form will be formed. In it is impossible to organize orbital motion of stars in one plane; therefore orbit of each star lies in the plane and has not the tendency to turn it in any certain position because of absence considerable aggregate of the gravidynamic moment of all system as a whole. In a solar System in the same way moves recently captured asteroids, such, as a Icarus, Eros, Hermes, Apollo, Adonis and them similar. Naturally, that at such motion of stars, they rakes out original matter from all volume of a spherical galaxy, and the new receipt it from center practically misses, therefore in similar galaxies there are no young stars, dust and gas. If in center of a galaxy the gravidynamic body is insignificant, but is gyrated, there is some general the gravidynamic moment making formed from of an original material stars in some degree to deploy orbits approximately in one plane. We shall watch elliptic galaxies down to almost flat systems, if the gravidynamic body in center is enough fast gyrated. Elliptical and spherical galaxies up to 25 % from number learnt are numbered. "The expansion of lines in spectra of elliptic galaxies indicates that stars in them moves in the most arbitrary directions with high speeds (order of 200 kms/sec). In these conditions the distribution of stars in all radial directions from center of symmetry should be almost equality probability, as explains the almost spheroidal form of such sidereal systems. Depending on a degree of visible squeezing, the elliptical nebulas are subdivided on 8 subtypes: from spherical systems Е0 up to lentiform Е7 (numeral indicates compression ratio)". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 101.
If central the gravidynamic body of a galaxy is great on mass and fast is gyrated, the life it is permanently accompanied by periodic large outbreaks (and practically to constant by the efflux) of original matter from center, which one shapes gas-dust sleeves being a medium for formation of new stars. In this case we apparent spiral flat galaxies (such galaxies include about 50 % from learnt) with mandatory presence of a active core at center.
In chapter 22.2 the evolution of orbits of space bodies are described at gravidynamic interplay. Is applicable these notions to evolution spherical and elliptic galaxies and gradual transformation them in spiral galaxies. Apparently, what even powerful the gravidynamic object in center of a galaxy can not simultaneous marshal orbits all of its members in one plane. The mechanism of progressive spontaneous increase common of the gravidynamic moment of a galaxy from center to peripherals therefore is most verisimilar at the expense of series turning about in that a direction orbital of the gravidynamic moments of separate stars. This process resembles domino theory. In this case spherical congestions in a halo of a spiral galaxy can be esteemed as more small-sized «sparks» of Large fireworks, entrapped galaxy as satellites.
"It is a lot of new to comprehension of structure of nuclear area of a Galaxy (Milky Way - V.K.) have given radio astronomical observations on a wave 21 cm. Directly to a large core of a Galaxy formed by stars, the spiral hydrogenous sleeve flanks. It is apart 4 kps from a core and has received a title four-kiloparsec of a sleeve. From center of a Galaxy in a direction of the Sun the sleeve is dilated with velocity of ~53 kms/sec. Till other side from a core a branch also is detected, but less exact structure, it is deleted from center with velocity of ~135 kms/sec. Total of hydrogen in these branches is estimated as 106-108 masses of the Sun. The gas efflux makes of central area of a Galaxy ~1.5 masses of the Sun per one year. The similar phenomena of expansion, outbreak of matter from central areas are detected and for other galaxies. So, near to center of a nebula Andromeda the considerable deviations from circular motion take place. In a galaxy М51 the powerful flows of matter, directional both to center, and from center are detected. Apparently, the complex motions of matter about of kerns of galaxies represent a rather often phenomenon. It is possible, that by a power source of matter escaping center, are the explosive processes in cores of galaxies... The core of a Galaxy is coincided with a powerful radio source Sagittarius А. This source is non-thermal. Till both sides from it there are some sources of heat radiation. The problem on structure and power sources of a core of a Galaxy is not still finally resolved. The study of a core is prolonged. Probably, the role of kerns in life of galaxies is more significant, than before this time guessed". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 97-98.
"These sidereal systems have two or several ragged spiral sleeves forming flat area "of the disk", and in center of a galaxy the spheroidal core is arranged. Them term as spiral galaxies and mean by a figure S. The spiral sleeves, as a rule, are rich by bright gas nebulas ambient hot stars - supergiants, and also clouds dark gas-dust of a substance. Approximately for half of spiral galaxies of a sleeves start at once from a core (it is normal spiral galaxies), for remaining galaxies the core is as though intercrossed by a bright strip (bar - В.К.), going far beyond a core (it - intercrossed spiral galaxies). From ends of a strip also start to be torque spiral sleeves... Both normal and the intercrossed spiral galaxies are subdivided for subtypes Sa, Sb, Sc, Sd - on the relative sizes of a core and disk (the sizes of a core descend from Sa to Sd). Some of spiral systems are visible in a profile as thick (in a case Sa) or thin spindle usually intercrossed by a band of dark matter... Our Galaxy, as is known, also is spiral, is more interquartile than everything, type Sb". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 101-103.
The spiral galaxies have the rotary characteristics, from the first view, mismatching law of gravitation on two segments. In immediate proximity from a core and up to distance approximately in 1 kps from it the galaxy is gyrated as a solid body and on distances from 1-3 kps up to approximately 10 kps there is a second segment, where the line speed of motion is incremented with distance from center of a galaxy. As a whole, the velocity distribution from center of a spiral galaxy has M-figurative kind. I did not manage to find official explanation of this phenomenon, adventure to give own. Similarly to law Habble for the Universe, the outbreaks of matter from a core of a galaxy should obey to those to rules not only concerning radial velocity, but also orbital, in view of proximity of huge nuclear mass. Then two areas of increase of an orbital velocity will correspond to eject able matters of two miscellaneous compounds, for example, meteoric - cometary matter. The more plausible explanation allows for repeated explosions of a core.
The solid-state rotation of galaxies seems to orthodox physics by a violation of law of a universal gravitation for the reason, that it, as against new physics, enables an arbitrary position of orbit while new physics from an infinite set of orbits indicates only on one, defined formula , whence velocity of orbital motion (allowing, that =V×r):
Therefore, the alteration of speed inversely proportional to a root square from distance corresponds to a law of gravitation in requirements, when mass M remains invariable in a volume 4/3×r3, i.e. for a practically blank space, for example, for a solar System. At transition to galactic scales M in the formula (29.5.1) it is impossible to consider a stationary value:
where - mean density of matter in a volume of a ball of radius r.
Substituting (29.5.2) in (29.5.1), we shall discover:
If density of matter is constant (central areas of galaxies), we shall watch solid-state rotation pursuant to the formula (29.5.3). If density of matter varies inversely to a square of distance, that is necessary to expect on a periphery of galaxies (allowing, that the galaxy represents oddments of the blown up supernucleus), the velocity of orbital motion pursuant to (29.5.3) remains to a stationary value. From the formula (29.5.3) it is easy to find density of matter of a central part (having solid-state character of rotation) such galaxies, as a Milky Way and Nebula Andromeda. Under the literary data (for example, Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 86 and P. Hodge, Galaxies, "Science", М., 1992, page 108) on one kiloparsec is necessary incremental velocity of rotation approximately on 100 kms/sec in these galaxies. By substituting these data in (29.5.3), we shall discover =3.76×10-23 g/cm3. The received value is higher than mean density of the Universe a million times. For an illustration of validity of enunciated above notions, we shall put curves of rotation of central areas (fig. 37) of a galaxy М31 (Nebula Andromeda) and its circumferential areas (fig. 24) from the book: P. Hodge, Galaxies, "Science", М., 1992, page 63 and 108.
The graph of a fig. 37 is received under the data of optical observations (visible part of a galaxy), and in a fig. 24 - under the data of radio observations (invisible part of a galaxy). Both graphs display, that the circumferential areas of a galaxy are gyrated with constant speed, i.e. density of matter in them descends in inverse proportion to distance from center. It, in turn, indicates that the galaxy was formed as a result of single-pass or repeated explosions in center it.
Apparently, that probability of formation suffices the large supernucleus and subsequent "explosion" of a spiral galaxy is very great in matching with other types of galaxies. In this sense our "house" - the galaxy a Milky Way is so dangerous, as well as its proximate neighbour - Nebula Andromeda. It is understandable, that are watched (about 20 %) and transition types of galaxies between elliptical and spiral, them mean by a figure S0. If the new cosmological notions which are set up here consider presence of dust and gas in galaxies as result, both remainder original of matter, and their continuous formation owing to a constitution of galaxies, an official cosmology dust and the gas in galaxies considers only as oddments original of matter. "These results have directed the explorers on thought that the sequence of Habble’s types ranks galaxies on a degree of preservation by them of gas and dust: the improper galaxies have saved up a majority of the gas and dust for gradual birth of all new and new stars, while the elliptic galaxies have expended almost all initial gas for the first explosive flash starformation". P. Hodge, Galaxies, "Science", М., 1992, page 19.
The enunciated notions allow understanding structure of galactic congestions. If progenitors the supernucleus has blown up is centrally symmetric, and the congestion, formed by it, will be spherical. And, apparently, that most far scattered debris will form spiral galaxies, and in center of congestion there will be elliptical and spherical galaxies, since an impulse and angular momentum received by a central part of a supernucleus small. "How there were congestions of galaxies? Why in spherical congestions the elliptical and lenticular systems predominate? On these and other problems the extragalactic astronomy while has not given yet definite answer". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 113.
Here full analogy to quasars and internal parts of the Universe. If the explosion of a supernucleus - grandparent of congestion - is not symmetrical, the improper congestion with predominantly spiral galaxies will be received. They are arranged along a trajectory of a supernucleus accelerated under activity of a jet thrust of eject able debris. This trajectory can be as chaotic and more or less prolate in space. The relevant form will be had also a congestion as a whole. "The equable congestions of the exact form consist, in basic, of elliptic galaxies and galaxies of a type S0, and shapeless ungeometrical congestions contain many spiral and improper galaxies... In congestion in a Berenice's Hair (exact congestion - V.K.) there are not enough of spiral galaxies and the majority them is arranged in external areas of congestion. The concentration of elliptic galaxies in center very high, and in process of removal from center density drops sharply". P. Hodge, Galaxies, "Science", М., 1992, page 114-115.
The growth of galaxies at the expense of intergalactic matter (and latent mass in all a volume and periphery of galaxies) is basic by nothing differs from growth of a solar System at the expense of interstellar matter. Therefore in galaxies we should meet a small amount of stars with a backward motion (similarly to external satellites of Jupiter). The spherical congestions and separate stars component a galactic corona of spiral galaxies, in all visibility, are captured intergalactic objects, therefore had no time to lose an exited state and to pass in fixed in a plane of the disk of a galaxy. "The objects of a galactic corona circles around of center of a Galaxy on very prolate orbits and consequently predominantly are on a periphery of a Galaxy". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 81.
"The spherical congestions, for example, though circles around of center of a Galaxy, but on very prolate, almost radial orbits chaotically oriented concerning a plane of a Galaxy. Apparent dispersion of velocities for the terms of spherical subsystems is great, it reaches tens and even of hundreds km/sec". Ibidem, page 85.
On the other hand, allowing scales of galaxies, it is difficult to hope that they will have time to pass in a stationary state in one period oscillations of the Universe. Similarly to solar System, is closer to center of galaxies heavy elements, and on a periphery and outside a visible part of galaxies - hydrogen as bodies of the cometary and planetary size "jupiter" of group. "By the first indication of approaching breakthrough on was recent research of neutral hydrogen in М31. When was detected and is measured the gas on very large distance from a core, the curve of rotation has refused to be bent downwards and to become Keplerian. Far behind that place, where according to the optical data the recurvature of a curve was reached the new results for neutral hydrogen testified that the velocity remains almost too stationary value. It is possible, only if the large masses are in far areas any of an invisible halo around М31 far outside visible parts of a galaxy… The majority of matter in galaxies is rare places within the limits of the visible images. On the contrary, the main body of mass of a galaxy is arranged behind those by limits, where, as it seems, it terminates... In a new course of development of events pitiable that if the new large measured values of masses are correct, at modern astronomical researches the majority of the Universe is not watched. The majority of matter in space is made in any unknown form in massive halos of galaxies and that we apparent as a galaxy, - only vertexes of very large icebergs. Grandiose of spiral galaxies are only skeletons of huge mysterious ghosts, the nature which one all still remains unknown... We have remained with a rather small list of improbable objects, any of which one, similar, us does not approach. In this list there are all objects, which one only can be invented, having mass and thus invisible in galaxies. For example, the planets like the Earth which is not followed with a luminous star will have mass and to radiate thus not enough light to be detected. Will approach as well more small-sized objects - block or small-sized stones. The problem with similar objects that nobody can invent a way of their production in sufficient quantity. It is possible rather unhesitatingly to assert, that the planet can not be formed, if at around there is no star, and that correctly for rock blocks. The alone worthy considerations objects are black holes, massive and nothing radiating, which one somehow can be formed in external parts protogalaxies. But what it was - black holes, rock blocks or exotic subatomic particles - capability that the majority of the Universe from us is latent, calls concern. We live in vast and inhibitory a dark space cloud, only here and there by lighted candles". P. Hodge, Galaxies, "Science", М., 1992, page. 63-65.
New physics categorically objects to impossibility of formation of rocks and space bodies without a central star. On the contrary, origin of a star is a phenomenon which is growing out of condensation of a significant amount of hydrogen in protosidereal a planetary system with a massive body in center. With that by success and even is more interquartile, that the central massive body can be formed from a material of "earth" group of planets, instead of "jupiter", and "jupiter" of a structure of a planet in this system place, as and it is necessary, on a periphery of a similar unobservable planetary system.
As shown earlier, for particles by the size are more 0.8 mms the Universe is transparent. Even in congestions of galaxies the concentration of meteoritic matter to center and cometary - to a periphery should be watched, that is to straight lines a corollary of formation of a congestion from one progenitors of a supernucleus.
"Invisible (and huge) mass is detected recently in far congestions of galaxies. It affects light of farther galaxies, garbling their form, and on these contortions it was possible to establish, that this mass is concentrated to center of congestion. Its reality, thus, is established outside of any doubts, there is it and at coronas of galaxies of early types (i.e. E, S0, Sa), and here in double galaxies, as we mentioned, it, apparently, is not present. The nature of carriers of this mass remains by a riddle". P. Hodge, Galaxies, "Science", М., 1992, page 7. "The observations displayed, that of latent mass in congestions of galaxies should be of times in 20 more, than visible mass, concentrated in galaxies". I.D. Novikov, Evolution of the Universe, "Science", М., 1983, page 149.
In connection with existence "of latent mass" and guess that it represents planetary systems around of a cold central body, it is necessary closely to analyze behavior of stars or quasars with irregular and rather fast changes of brilliance. Quite can appear that it is connected with eclipses by similar systems of far luminous objects. It is uneasy to count up, that a body dimensioned of Jupiter located on purlieus our Galaxy capable to overlap light from object by the size in a solar System apart 5 billions light years, and star by the size about the Sun on tenfold distance from the Earth up to this body. As density of stars is more than density of planets - giants, on a periphery of galaxies behind the sidereal population should be present at an even lot, than star "latent" masses representing dark objects such as planets – giants. These "jupiters" are obturated in process of growth and move closer to center of a galaxy, where are transformed into stars.
It is necessary to affect one more problem, which one in this section are notions of an official cosmology about two breeds of stars. It is considered, that the heavy elements will be formed at the end of evolution of stars of a first generation and the presence them in atmospheres of stars of a second generation serves "proof" that they were formed of the matter which has arisen after a first generation of stars. Otherwise to not explain in any way formation of elements is heavier of iron. Allowing constant receipt of space matter at planetary systems and stars (see chapter "Formation and constitution of a solar System"), apparently, that in spectra of atmospheres of stars we should watch lines of elements, not entering initially in a structure of a star, and continuously going from the outside. Even moreover, is serious of the basis to consider, that the thermonuclear reactions flow past not only inside a star, but also on it "surface" at dropping on a star of clouds of hydrogen. In this sense the motion of matters about a star is similar to motion them about kerns of galaxies, when the flow of matter on a star is intensive, than flow from a star not less. Thus, the spectra of stars display not so much compound of the star, how many compound of ambient interstellar matter. Then the stars about of center of a spiral galaxy and in a corona of a galaxy, and also star of elliptic galaxies will be introduced us "old" - with the large contents of heavy elements, and star of a periphery - "young" - in basic hydrogen-containing. On the present the new stars also will have spectra depending on a compound of a surrounding medium from which one they are formed and in which one are in the present moment. "But in the 60-th years has appeared that of a Magellan Clouds put before us a problem. At first, these galaxies, apparently, contained spherical congestions, which one were young, than old faster. Moreover, in Clouds many young stars were revealed, which one at in-depth spectroscopic research have appeared poor heavy elements. Thus, for these two galaxies the separation into the population I and II is unsuitable. Besides per the last years was shown, that many elliptic galaxies, which one were guessed consisting only from the population II, have appeared surprised rich heavy elements, - the same as also central bulkheads of spiral galaxies. Even in our Galaxy has a place violation of the scheme: in the most external parts of a galactic disc the contents of heavy elements in young stars is unexpected low, while in spherical congestions near to a galactic centre and in stars bulkhead of heavy elements it is a lot of, despite of their large age". P. Hodge, Galaxies, "Science", М., 1992, page 43.
Comments of the author to chapter 29.5:
1. Formation of spiral galaxies.
Detonating the suffice large debris of a supernucleus will forms a spherical galaxy the further evolution by which one is determined by gravidynamic interplay. The gravidynamic moments of stars orbits incidentally arranged in space are step-by-step marshaled in one direction. The galaxy is flattened, central bulge step-by-step decreases in the sizes, and in center of a galaxy the supernuclei are repeatedly reshaped ejecting at detonatings a sprays of matter, forms a helical sleeve of a galaxy.
2. Formation of spherical galaxies.
When the large debris of a supernucleus surrounded by a thick layer of a neutron liquid loses metastability, the detonating of a supernucleus takes place practically instantaneously and the spherical galaxy despite of a huge running speed of a mother supernucleus will be formed. The most small-sized debris at detonating at once will formatives stars, which one consist predominantly of Hydrogenium. Formation of these stars do not need contraction of a hydrogenous cloud, temperature at once is sufficient for thermonuclear processes. Thus, the firstgeneration of stars will be formation at once. At repeated explosions of larger debris of a supernucleus mini-spherical «galaxies» - spherical flocks of stars will be formation in the same way. Naturally, that these spherical flocks will move on high-eccentric orbits inside a galaxy and will become appreciable at formation of a spiral galaxy in its halo. The splashes of a neutron liquid at initial explosion will take peripherals of a galaxy and step-by-step will become the supplier of comets and asteroids for epicyclic systems around of each star. The jets of matter from center of a galaxy will forms helical sleeves with clouds of Hydrogenium at gravitational contraction which one takes place subsequent sluggish formation of stars.
The star, being moves in space with absolute speed V, radiates forward photons with the greater energy, than back. Therefore body radiating photons is brake, losing energy on two radiated photons:
E=h - h (22.214.171.124),
Из (15.1.3): where h - energy of a photon radiated forward, and h - radiated back. From (15.1.3):
, and (126.96.36.199),
where - frequency of a photon which is radiated a fixed light source, V - absolute speed of a source, C - speed of light. Substituting (188.8.131.52) in (184.108.40.206) and allowing, that the source radiates in a current of traffic all 1/3 photons (radiate 2 sides from six sides of block), we shall discover full power loss of a source in unit of time (apparently, that it is loss of a kinetic energy of a source):
where L - radiated power of a source (its brightness).
If in the first crude approximation to accept, that neither mass, nor brightness of a source continuous time do not vary, it is possible to count up time of full exhaustion of a kinetic energy of a source:
Substituting in (220.127.116.11) particular numerals for the Sun (L = 3.86·1026 watts, М = 1.99·1030 kgs), we shall discover, that its orbital motion around of center of a Galaxy (250 kms/sec) will be stopped through 9.2 billions years, and motion of a Galaxy as a whole (600 kms/sec) - through 22 billions years. These numerals approximately display an interval between Bid Bangs of the Universe as a whole (20-25 billions years) and (allowing, that the Sun is on a periphery of a Galaxy) interval between large explosions of our Galaxy (9-10 billions years), therefore blasted out galaxies (for example, М82) are watched extremely seldom. Is for the same reason watched all about 5 % of so-called improper galaxies, which one, apparently, grow out of large explosion of a galaxy. Not enough their large mass had no time to create the organized motion of the terms of such galaxies. Allowing, that the distribution of orbital velocities of stars in spiral galaxies has M-figurative kind, it is possible to tell, that the whole hierarchy of explosions is substantially implemented (itself M-figurative distribution is a corollary of this hierarchy). The main mass of matter of a Galaxy is gone with an orbital velocity of the order of 100 kms/sec, the interval between large explosions of this matter will make already 4 billions years. Apparently, that the matter near to center of a Galaxy permanently is in a condition of often explosions. As a whole, the gradual drop of stars to center of galaxies in spiral galaxies is represented, in connection with enunciated, rather to composite.
After explosion one of debris of a supernucleus will be formatived spherical or elliptic galaxy. It is understandable, that orbits of each star in such galaxy are directed to the miscellaneous sides and have a large eccentricity. Such condition of a galaxy is unstable. In chapter 29.5.1 is shown, that the photon radiation of star brakes its motion and reduces a kinetic energy of star proportionally its speed and luminosity (formula 18.104.22.168). Specially large loss of a kinetic energy will occur near to pericentre star orbit, since here its running speed is max. Therefore orbit eccentricity decreases, as it is connected to exuberant energy of orbital motion. As a result stars orbit step-by-step become circumferential. Besides the gravidynamic orbital moment urges all orbits step-by-step to be marshaled in one plane. In outcome the elliptic galaxy is transformed into the rotated flat disk. If there was no inhibition of star at the expense of photon radiation, the star would take a circular orbit, on which one the attractive force to center of a galaxy is counterbalanced by centrifugal effort:
where: G - gravitational constant, M - mass of a galaxy, m - mass of star, V - orbital velocity of star, r - radius star orbit. Because of constant inhibition of star at the expense of photon radiation, the equality (22.214.171.124) is never executed also attractive force to center of a galaxy always exceeds centrifugal effort. In outcome there is a unbalanced centripetal force:
This force produces a centripetal acceleration of star, directional to center of a galaxy, which one does not depend on star mass:
From the formula (126.96.36.199) it is visible, what is it acceleration is progressively augmented with an approaching of star to galaxy center. Therefore all stars of a galaxy jointly drop on its center, forms the grandiose space funnel - spiral galaxy.
It is possible to show, that the process of dip of stars in center of a spiral galaxy is rather long that is necessary to collect in one place huge quantity of stars dispersed in it with vanishingly small in mean density on volume of galaxy. Nevertheless, the process of concentration of stars in center of a galaxy can not be continue eternally. Step-by-step thermonuclear combustible in them burns out, the stars are chilled and are transformed into iron-nickel objects. Interflowing among themselves, they will forms superheavy object, which one, thicken up to nuclear density transformed into a huge neutron star inside which one already probably the formation of a supernucleus and grandiose explosion of a galaxy with formation of two new hose coil (chapter 29.5). The rather short time between oscillations of the Universe does not allow multiply to replicate described process, since all galaxies after all collects to a place of new Big Bang.
From enunciated cosmological notions follows, that all physical double (and multiple) the stars should be differently age, instead of formed from one condensation, as the official cosmology asserts.
"Though till now there is no full clearness in a problem on a genesis of double and multiple stars, by numerous researches are disclaimed a hypothesis of division as a result of a violation equilibrium of a single rotated star and hypothesis of capture of one star by another, theoretically possible only near to the third star, sidereal congestion or cloud. The simultaneous formation of a multiple system in general process of formation of stars is most possible". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 219.
From our notions with all evidence follows (see chapter "Formation and constitution of a solar System"), that the capture of a space material starting from dust, up to bodies of planetary scales is not random confluence of circumstances, and rigid legitimacy determining practically all parameters of a system. Is captured can be and star as a whole, but the more natural course of world development is, that the planets - giants of any star reach the critical sizes, then there is their transmutation into stars - satellites.
In a solar System there are two candidates (except for Mars) on presence of indications of life is a satellite of Jupiter Europe (precisely corresponds) to the Earth as to a satellite of the Sun). It is "Earth" of that time, when the Sun yet has not become a star and Triton. The question is that a satellite of Neptune a Triton is not so stacked on the parameters in the outlined picture of a constitution of a solar System, that can be estimated not differently, as an captured vagabonding planet. It was formed in interstellar medium or (that is less possible) was in any planetary system, having a quantum number 5 or 6 "earth" groups, if it chemical compound will be confirmed by it. Then the Triton corresponds to our Earth or Mars. If there, in warm entrails, for millions years of wanderings somebody has remained, the Earth or Mars them should remind forgot to motherland. Sitting with them inside a Triton, we can reflect on about the future of a solar System. It is represented to not such quiet, as the present. Jupiter now represents "barrel with a powder" in which one the huge reserves thermonuclear combustible are accumulated. Mass of Jupiter practically has reached that critical value, when temperature of entrails of Jupiter will reach values, at which one will become the possible thermonuclear process, and, allowing monstrous pressure inside Jupiter, temperature of a beginning of reaction can be rather small. At all events, on the initial stages of a flash of Jupiter in process the most "hot" nuclei of Boltzmann distribution on energies will participate that will cause to autocatalytic development of reaction. Now own radiation of Jupiter considerably exceeds a flow of energy gained from the Sun. It indirectly indicates that in its entrails already there are thermonuclear processes probably to mismatching adopted now schemes a proton - proton and carbonic - nitrogen, as temperature inside Jupiter is explicitly insufficient for these processes (see chapter 12.4.).
"The energy liberation can flow past by different paths. One of such paths is the carbon-nitrogen cycle indicated in 1939 by the Bete:
As a result of passing of this cycle from four nuclei of hydrogen there is a formation of one nucleus of helium - combustion of hydrogen to formation of helium. Quantity of carbon thus does not vary; it plays a role of catalyst. This cycle flows past stationary at temperatures in tens millions degrees in entrails of hot stars during millions years. Inside more cold stars and Sun the passing of other cycle - proton-proton (the Bete and the Crichfild, 1938) is possible:
This process also results in formation of a nucleus of helium from four nuclei of hydrogen". N.I. Kariakin etc., Brief manual on physics, "Higher School", М., 1962, page 485-486.
Therefore it is possible to offer a pair of mechanisms of cold thermonuclear process under the following schemes, which one will be completely, agreed notions enunciated in the chapter about elementary particles and the theory of nuclei of atoms.
1. At approach of two protons up to center distance of the order 3-10 fm, between them start to act nuclear attractive forces. A nucleus from two protons to exist can not, therefore one of protons during approach is transformed into a neutron and only after that the nucleus of deuterium will be formed. The aggregate process will be such: 1H1+1H11D2+e++. The official notions assert same basically mechanism. The tritium will be similarly formed also at reaction of deuterium with a proton. The further process of formation of helium is known and already will be utilized at thermonuclear explosions.
2. The plasma representing mixture of protons and electrons at hyperpessure (in entrails of a space body) represents ideal conditions for formation of "minihydrogen" - neutrons at the expense of loss by an electron of an angular momentum on a screw trajectory, and for formation of pair the neutrino - antineutrino is necessary not enough for energy. Then at rather low temperature the process is possible: p+en+. Further neutrons can form with protons deuterium and tritium. The neutron is capable directly to react with tritium with formation of helium: 1Т3+n2He4+e-+. The freed electron with a positive proton again will forms a neutron and the cycle is repeated.
Birth of a new star and transmutation of a solar System into a system of a binary star, as the majority of the neighbors on a Milky Way, will be such catastrophe for life on the Earth, which one it will not pass. "Not all stars are individual, as our Sun. Apparently about 80 % of stars enter in double or even more composite sidereal systems". K.P. Belov, N.G. Bochkarev, Magnetism on the Earth and in space, "Science", М., 1983, page 142. It is possible to judge scales of such catastrophe on stationary to flashes of new stars in our Galaxy. In binary stars, the junior partner, most likely, represents a former planet "jupiter" of group in the second quantum condition, or even in first, if the higher companion is not too hot.
Here there will be a pertinent one remark. It is possible to show, that a space body the having mobile core (fluid or gaseous), at proper rotation in a current of traffic on orbit, should have a varying magnetic field, the amplitude and frequency of oscillations which one depends on viscosity of a core (temperature) and its electrical conductivity. At low viscosity and high electrical conductivity (heat of entrails) there are any more oscillations, and polarity reversal of magnetic poles by a inverting on 1800 magnetic dipole of a star or planet, as we it apparent for the Sun to what is connected its magnetic activity with a complete cycle 22 years (magnetic dipole is overturned in 11 years). The same phenomenon we should watch for Jupiter, Saturn and other planets jupiter of group. The magnetic activity of Jupiter is already detected, and it is an indication of a fast flash. "As follows from the analysis of propagation of seismic waves in entrails of the Earth, the core it is in a liquid state. The physical conditions there are those, that a core electroconductive... As follows from the paleomagnetic data, geomagnetic dynamo works in a unstable mode and results in considerable oscillations of a field during the order 104 years and occasionally to change of a sign of a field". K.P. Belov, N.G. Bochkarev, Magnetism on the Earth and in space, "Science", М., 1983, page 112. Therefore, the control behind a condition of magnetic activity of Jupiter will allow forecasting time of its transmutation in a star. "Some astronomers are inclined to consider Jupiter not as a planet, and extrasmall self-maintained star, meaning own radiation of a planet in a radio-frequency range. As have shown estimations, at the expense of own radiation in a radio-frequency range Jupiter loses three times more energy, than receives it from the Sun". V.G. Demin, Destiny of a solar System, "Science", М., 1975, page 20.
Apparently, that the solution of this problem is most actually for mankind, to wait for a natural course of world development already there is no time, allowing, that the embodying grandiose of the project in a history of mankind is necessary. The small chance of saving is "to set fire" to Jupiter by a thermonuclear charge at favorable arrangement of heavenly bodies so that outbreak of matter has taken place on tangent to orbit of Jupiter, instead of it is radially, that is necessary to expect at a natural course of world development. There is still small consolation, allowing slowness of our society, that the flash of Jupiter will be provoked by hit in it of rather large comet is a natural course of world development and the drop direction with a high probability should be favorable for us, that will not tell concerning arrangement of heavenly bodies in this moment.
In connection with enunciated, logical the following scheme of evolution of stars is represented. Everyone protostar represents a cold space body with a satellite system "earth" and "jupiter" of groups. In process of accumulation of a hydrogenous material, the entrails protostar are warmed up, and their viscosity sharply drops, and the electrical conductivity grows. There is at first pulsatory magnetic field, which one shortly before of a flash protostar varies already with a polarity reversal of magnetic poles, i.e. there is a magnetic activity. Because of intensive increase of mass protostar, its planetary system also is intensive evolves and has no time to receive a stationary state, especially terms "jupiter" of group (as for Jupiter). At reaching some critical mass on protostar are forms conditions for thermonuclear process and there is a grandiose flash, thus the new star dumps, approximately 10 % of mass in space. The star will be formed, the further evolution by which one are bodily determined by receipt of a hydrogenous material from the outside. If the decrease of matter at the expense of reaction and "sidereal" (in our case solar) "of a wind" is compensated by receipt, the star is in a stationary state from a stationary value by brightness. A main condition for this purpose is the uniform distribution of hydrogen on a sidereal way. The small clouds of hydrogen calling chromospheric flashes do not change by an essential fashion a mean picture. Here it is time completely legibly to formulate latent, dragged through by the author heretical thought that the thermonuclear processes feeding by energy a stars, are committed not only inside them, as it is accepted to consider, and outside, in a chromosphere and corona. Explanations of behavior of pulsatory stars also need thermonuclear process outside of a star. "The calculation displays, that due to this the thermonuclear reactions of a star appear inefficient concerning excitation of its natural oscillations. It's quite another matter, if the nuclear reactions flowed past on a periphery of a star, where the amplitude of natural oscillations is great. Basically such layering sources of a nuclear power can exist. For example, in center of a star hydrogen could already "to burn out", whereas in a peripheral layer it was still kept, and the combustion it here serves a power source of radiation of a star, simultaneously exciting its oscillations. Therefore, strong non-homologous of normal oscillations of a star urges to refuse any "central" mechanisms of excitation of its oscillations and to search for mechanisms, the activity which one would be localized in peripheral layers". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 457.
Let's return to evolution of stars. If it is not enough of hydrogen, the star is chilled, and if the concentration it is non-uniform, the activity of a star permanently varies. Helium, forms as a result of thermonuclear process, and other elements "are stored" in a body of a star. In the same way there are evolution and planets "jupiter" of group of each star and, if the space material suffices, satellites "jupiter" of group of planets "jupiter" of group etc.
Here it is necessary to understand, why inside planets temperature up to such degree is increased, that becomes to possible origin of a magnetic field of a planet, with all evidence showing, that the entrails of a planet incandescent, fluid and have a high electrical conductivity. After study of the chapters dedicated "elementary" particles and photons, the reader, probably, was convinced that space is pierced a neutrino not only that will be formed in known now processes (beta decay of nuclei), but forms the broadest energy spectrum, as we it apparent for photons. Naturally, that absorptivity by matter these neutrino is various. Therefore space bodies, since some critical mass (dependent from chemical compound) are capable rather intensively to immerse flow a neutrino of large energy, that results, on the one hand, in heating entrails of a space body, and on the other hand, to increase of its mass from inside, since just a neutrino and antineutrino will forms matter.
Comments of the author to chapter 29.6:
1. The ultrarays fire stars.
That the gas cloud after a collapse was turn intoed an star, the mechanism of start of thermonuclear reactions of synthesis is necessary, which one hereinafter can selfsupport. If a gas cloud of considerable size, temperature after its collapse is already sufficient for reactions of synthesis, but for more small-sized objects, such, as Jupiter, Saturn and other planets - giants temperature is obviously poor. However, we can watch numerous stars of the small sizes (excepting superdense) and even our planets - giants soundly are considered as stars, since beam considerably more energy (while, in a radio-frequency range), than receive from the Sun. As is known, it is easiest to execute thermonuclear fusion in a mixture of deuterium and tritium.
At transit of ultrarays through high layers of atmospheres of objects of the epicyclic sizes huge quantity of muons will be formed. Though their life time of the order 2×10-6 sec, they have a large penetrating power because of a weak coupling with matter. As mass of a muon in 207 times exceeds electronic mass, and moment for them identical, radius of a screw trajectory of a muon is significant less, than electron, therefore at formation of mesonic atoms orbit of a muon places in immediate proximity to a nucleus. As a result of a nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen easily capture negatively charged muon with formation of meson “moleculas” from nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen: p, pp, pd, dd («Physics of a microcosmos», M., 1980, page 270). In such «moleculas» of a nuclei easily enter in a reactions of synthesis with the conforming energy release. «Molecula» pm after decay of a muon is transformed into «minihydrogen» - neutron (chapter 7.2.2). The nuclear reactions of synthesis in meson «moleculas» and originating of deuterium, tritium and neutrons under operating of ultrarays are a sufficient condition for originating a new star.
Explicitly we shall consider a qualitative picture of formation of a supernucleus, which one is the grandparent of the Universe and its main constituents - galaxies and their congestions. On the basis of this picture the capability of the mathematical description of each stage of process with this or that accuracy will appear. Apparently, what to describe formation of the Universe and galaxies only by gravitational interaction without engaging formation and decay of supernuclei it is impossible.
1. Electrically neutral matter is gradually agglomerated in a massive unified body. At reaching mass of a body comparable with mass of Jupiter or is little bit higher, inside a body the nuclear reactions start, there is a flash and formation of a new star. If it is not enough of matter in of ambient space for further intensive growth, the star passes in a rather stationary state and slowly evolves. Further we shall consider version of condensation of matter having nuclei of a mean part of the table of the Mendeleyev to not complicate a picture by nuclear reactions.
2. If mass of a body prolongs intensively to grow, at some critical mass there is a nonreversible collapse. If the body is gyrated, at a collapse two versions are possible: in the first version the rotation rate becomes such, that the body is torn under activity of centrifugal forces, forming a huge gas-dust cloud, in the second version comes into effect gravidynamic squeezing accelerating a collapse. This or that version is implemented depending on density and initial velocity of rotation of a body. If the body is not gyrated, the collapse is nonreversible at this stage. At final stage of a collapse of electronic shells for atoms fade, and superdense will be formed electronic - nuclear plasma.
3. Further neutronization of matter is happens. The electrons lose an angular momentum and will forms with protons neutrons. The nuclei of atoms gradually "are dissolves" until the homogeneous body from neutron gas will be formed. At gravitational compression and reaching of density, close to nuclear, the energy is exuded: , which one is spent for "dissolution" of nuclei of atoms and formation of superdense neutron gas (to be crystallized this gas can not, since the formation of nuclei from one only of neutrons is impossible):
where k - Boltzmann constant, M/mn - number of neutrons in neutron gas.
if M to substitute in grammes. For the Sun in a considered condition T=1012 degrees. Each neutron at such temperature has energy 130 MeV and it with a large reserve sufficient for full "dissolution" of nuclei, existing in a superdense body, and formation of homogeneous neutron gas. If to take into account magnetic interaction between neutrons more correct to speak about a neutron liquid.
In space are radiated an electronic neutrino. These processes are accompanied by heat absorption allocated at a collapse. The neutron body has ferromagnetic properties, in it the neutrons spontaneously are oriented in one direction, and there is a powerful magnetic field. If the body is gyrated, it the gravidynamic moment instigates and steadies orientation of neutrons (pulsar). The neutron body in essence is unstable also duration of its existence is stipulated by time, for which one the energy of neutrons at the expense of losses will become less than 8 MeV. Apparently, that the neutrons can not "to be crystallized" with formation of a supernucleus consisting of one neutrons and remain in a body as superdense gas.
4. When the neutron body enough will cool down, the crystallization of a supernucleus starts. In a zone of crystallization half of neutrons are transformed into protons. The relativistic electrons and electronic antineutrino are simultaneously radiated. As the surface of a neutron body is chilled faster, the crystallization of a supernucleus on a surface happens practically permanently. Thus the relativistic electrons at the expense of a magnetic field are radiated as two opposite of directional jets. Inside a neutron body the supernucleus of much greater mass is gradually shaped, than supernucleus shell on a surface because of gravitational deduction of a shell.
If m - mass of a supernucleus shell, M - mass of a general superdense body with density close to nuclear density, and R - its radius. The number of protons in a shell is approximately equal m/2mp, where mp - mass of a proton, since in a supernucleus the number of protons is equal to number of neutrons (a-particles). From a requirement of a force equality operational on mass m at the expense of a coulomb repulsion and gravitational attraction in case of a crystallization from a surface, we shall discover: , whence we shall discover a stability criterion of a superdense body:
If the left-hand part (29.7.3) will appear more right, there will be a drop of a supernucleus shell. By substituting in (29.7.3) numerical values of world constants, we shall discover:
m 1.30×10-35M (29.7.4).
From (29.7.4) it is visible, that the supernucleus in a superdense body makes a minor share of total mass. For example, for the Sun of mass 2×1033 g mass of a supernucleus is sufficient only 26 mg, that it was dropped as a shell.
If the supernucleus will be formed in center of a superdense body, the potential energy wedge off of a supernucleus is peer or less to potential energy of a gravitational attraction of all mass: , where r - radius of a supernucleus, whence, allowing, that density of a supernucleus and superdense body practically is identical:
Substituting in (29.7.5) world constants, we shall discover:
Instead of radiuses, we shall calculate in (29.7.6) masses:
m 5.10×10-22M (29.7.7).
Comparing (29.7.7) with mass of a supernucleus form on a surface, we see, that in case of a crystallization of a supernucleus inside a superdense body mass of a supernucleus can be on 13 orders more. In this case inside the Sun mass of a supernucleus 1012 g suffices to tear a body of the Sun from inside. Radius of such supernucleus makes 0.3 mms.
At formation of gravidynamic object (for example, pulsar) mass it can be small, but gravidynamic forces of compression are nuclear forces, therefore they are capable to contract a body up to nuclear density, at which will be formed one the supernucleus and rather long to retain it from a gap. At smaller rotation rate and rather small mass the gravidynamic attraction can appear poor for formation of a supernucleus, thus superdense will be formed gravidynamic object. The gravidynamic object can not exist a long time. Because of intensive power losses superdense the gravidynamic object will be destroyed under activity of centrifugal forces, and containing a supernucleus will blow up with huge energy liberation. The similar objects are rather possible in active cores of spiral galaxies.
5. The heat of entrails provides a large back pressure and also promotes an intensive convection. It hinders with formation of a supernucleus inside. The resistance to formation of a supernucleus is proportional to mass of a body and depends on growth rate of mass.
If mass of a body is not so great also velocity of its growth is inappreciable, outside neutral "shell" at some critical mass of a supernucleus any more can not counteract a coulomb repulsion of protons in a supernucleus and there is a flash of a Supernew star. The similar phenomenon should be watched and in cores spherical and elliptic galaxies. The process is very similar to explosion of the boiler with a superheated steam, when its walls are not capable to constrain rising pressure inside.
If mass of a body is significant, that is possible at its intensive growth, since the compression of a body is rather long-term on time, the neutral matter in "shell" is accumulated much faster, than grows the supernucleus and capable to retain a body from a gap at any mass of a body.
If the receipt of new matter ceases, the gradual compression of a body results in growth of a supernucleus, the critical state is reached and happens grandiose explosion. This case can be related both to explosion of the whole galaxy, and to Big Bang of all Universe as a whole. In the latter case inside a supernucleus reaching nucleon density of matter is possible. Thus a neutrino become "free" under the script of a large collapse and are volatilized from a body of the Universe until will take out such energy, that the condition of nucleon density of matter will vanish. This process should be accompanied by radiation a neutrino in the ratio: on 2 muonic antineutrino 2 electronic neutrinos and 1 electronic antineutrino or (at decay a muonic antineutrino) on 5 electronic antineutrino 4 electronic neutrinos. At nuclear density the Universe will collect in a ball of radius 4.5 а.u. This distance almost corresponds to radius of orbit of Jupiter (5.2 а.u.).
6. It is necessary to consider the mechanism of explosion of a supernucleus to close a cycle of evolution of the Universe and its constituents. Apparently, that the explosion of a supernucleus will happen then, when the coulomb repulsion of its parts will exceed squeezing from neutral "shell". If the body is fast gyrated, to squeezing "shell" is added gravidynamic squeezing.
Comments of the author to chapter 29.7: 1. Whether the sober glance on evolution of the Universe is possible?
Now it is possible to state only negative answer on raised the question. As is known, the alcohol hazes brains and disentangles tongues. The quoters of official science are not capable soberly to think, as are compelled to use a cocktail from official views to not become the outcasts in own environment and to not be deprived benefits. Here amateur performances are unallowed. The independent researchers now revels in a freedom of speech, which one is granted by the Internet and use in general wild mixture from fragments somewhere of heard official notions dilute by hootch of own cooking, therefore blabs whatever not listening each other. The time is necessary, that all have realized, that drive to bay ourself in a labyrinth and needs all to be started at first. Cool ardent heads the facts can only.
Here I shall try out very shortly (omitting details) to set up evolution of the Universe, being based on the fixed facts and not using any fabrications. It is necessary to begin from a history of the Universe up to «of Big Bang». A law of universal gravitation nobody canceled and pursuant to this law all matter of the Universe early or late will collect in one place. The encumbrances to a law of universal gravitation do not exist, except for of leisured fictions. Under operating of a gravitation protouniverse will be thickens, but the density of matter are higher nuclear does not exist (if again to discard cloud-castles). At nearing to nuclear density the law of balance of neutrons and positive protons in a nucleus enters into force, therefore in metastable «neutron» protouniverse step-by-step part of neutrons is transformed into positive protons. Protouniverse thus (on my calculations) has radius to approximately equal orbit of Mars. Inside protouniverse the supernucleus will be formed, but it can not to achieve the large sizes, since the coulomb repulsion on 36 orders is stronger than a gravitational attraction. Therefore in the nature of things there is «Big Bang» (but not silly «singularity» with infinite density). «Big Bang» to call by Large Fireworks more correct. The scattering flinders of the Universe on a path again are disintegrated, the outside debris receive a padding jet impulse, and internal are effectively slowed down. «The extension of space» is a delirium here again at all at what. It is clear, that the flinders of the Universe as a whole scatter in a slowed-up way. «The red displacement» of spectral lines to proportional spacing interval up to distant galaxies is easily explained by propagation of photons from area of large gravity potential and also can be explained by actual increase of speed scatter of galaxies, but not at the expense «extension of space», and at the expense of padding jet impulses at decay of peripheral parts of the Universe, though it is process is limited in time. At the end matter of the Universe stops and under operating of a gravitation again returns in a condition of the protouniverse.
All below-mentioned formulas can be updated, but thus incremental them crockhood does not give of new comprehension of processes, and the refinements are not strongly reflected in end results.
Charge of a supernucleus:
where m0 - nonrelativistic nuclear mass, mn - nonrelativistic mass of a nucleon or neutron, e - elementary charge.
Potential energy of a coulomb repulsion of protons in a supernucleus:
where R - radius of a supernucleus. Let's suspect, that each supernucleus is disintegrated on two parts, then: , whence: , where m1 - nonrelativistic mass of one debris after the first decay, R0 - radius of an initial supernucleus, R1 - radius of a debris after the first decay. Apparently, as etc. For debris after n-decay:
Apparently, that the number of debris the after n of decays will be 2n, and charge each of debris:
where Z0 - charge of an initial supernucleus. By substituting (188.8.131.52) and (184.108.40.206) in (220.127.116.11), we shall discover potential electrostatic energy n-th of debris:
The general potential electrostatic energy of all debris will be:
From (18.104.22.168) and (22.214.171.124) it is visible, that both general energy, and energy of each debris decrease with increase n in a geometrical progression.
From the formula (126.96.36.199) it is easy to find number n of sequential decays of a supernucleus (for example, for a supernucleus with mass of the Sun R0=1.67×106 cm) before obtaining a certain nucleus (for example, uranium R~7×10-13 cm). For this example n=183.
From (188.8.131.52) after the first decay of an initial supernucleus the energy will be released:
This energy will be expended for increase of relativistic mass of two debris (velocity them practically is peer to speed of light):
where m1р - relativistic mass of one debris. Equating (184.108.40.206) and (220.127.116.11), we shall discover:
From (18.104.22.168) electrostatic energy of the first debris:
And gravitational energy it with the registration (22.214.171.124) and (126.96.36.199):
where G - gravitational constant. Here it is necessary to mark, that at decay of a supernucleus together with debris the part of a neutron liquid of a parent neutron body is captured, as mass of debris will increase on many orders, and the part of this liquid as jets is sprayed in ambient space. Besides the energy is spent for heating of a neutron body and miscellaneous kind of radiations accompanying decay and outbreak of debris. Therefore in further there is a sense to consider behavior of "bare" debris of a supernucleus to not make the arbitrary guesses, which one always disputable. Thus we shall show, that the parameters of behavior of "bare" debris are received so overstated, that allow in further with a large reserve to utilize practically any allowances.
Let's discover critical nonrelativistic mass of an initial supernucleus at the first decay which one the metastable debris will be formed. For these debris the gravitational energy should exceed electrostatic, i.e. Eg E1:
Substituting in (188.8.131.52) expressions (184.108.40.206) and (220.127.116.11), connection between mass and radius and receiving nuclear density equal 1014 g/cm3, we shall receive rather unwieldy expression containing only world constants. Substituting values of these constants, finally we shall discover:
m0cr 4.61×109 g (18.104.22.168).
The supernucleus with mass is less, than on expression (22.214.171.124) all will blow up at once bodily. If mass of a supernucleus is significant more, than is determined by expression (126.96.36.199), the debris of the first order will metastable and be capable to scatter on large distance before there will be a repeated decay. Apparently, that than more than mass of an initial supernucleus, especially of high order the debris will be metastable. The picture of decay of a supernucleus is complicated by that the debris already of second order appears in disparate conditions. One of them can practically "to be stopped" and its relativistic additive of mass will vanish. In this case there will be a gap of this debris irrespective of its mass. The second debris in this case to the present relativistic additive of mass gains the additional additive and will be metastable at as much as small mass, since is look-alike to a rocket on a jet thrust.
At decay of a supernucleus its potential energy is transformed into a kinetic energy of debris, and as they move practically with speed of light, the energy is transformed into relativistic increase of mass of debris. In this case gravitational energy of attraction exceeds electrostatic energy of repulsion for each debris. In spite of the fact that the kind of the formulas is identical to a gravitational attraction and coulomb repulsion, but in result of rather sharp decreasing of relativistic mass, the curve of a gravitational attraction wanes more abrupt and intercrosses a curve of a coulomb repulsion in a critical point, when there is a possible repeated decay of debris. In connection with enunciated we can record:
The solution of an equation (188.8.131.52) provided that at m=m1p, r=2R1, where m - relativistic mass of debris of the first order, m1p - initial relativistic mass of debris of the first order, r - distance between two scattering debris of the first order, R1 - radius of debris of the first order:
Allowing a mesh size of supernuclei in matching with distance between them in (184.108.40.206) value 2R1 it is possible to neglect.
Equilibrium condition of debris of the first order:
Substituting in (220.127.116.11) expressions (18.104.22.168), (22.214.171.124), (126.96.36.199), (188.8.131.52) and (184.108.40.206), we shall discover critical distance between debris of the first order, they are farther which one are capable to repeated decay:
Now all above mentioned we can illustrate by calculations for the Sun, for galaxies - pigmy, for our Galaxy and galaxy Andromeda and for the Universe as a whole. The results are shown in the table.
Mass of supernucleus, g
Energy of the first decay, erg
General energy of full decay, erg
The simplest case corresponds to explosion of a not rotated or feebly rotated body, to which one it is possible to relate form after explosion spherical and elliptic galaxies, spherical congestions of stars and Universe as a whole. Apparently, that the debris of a body in the beginning will be moves practically with speed of light since all accumulated potential energy passes in a kinetic energy of debris. In short period of acceleration the debris gain a relativistic velocity, therefore, mass will increase them on many orders. Thus the gravidynamic field at the expense of huge mass and huge motion speed becomes so powerful, that steady against decay it appear not only nuclei of far transuranium elements, but also supernuclei of the macroscopic sizes. For example, in case of Big Bang these supernuclei have mass on many orders superior mass of a galaxy. In case of explosion spherical or elliptic galaxies the debris on mass exceeds spherical congestions of stars. Sharply increased total mass effectively brakes debris, reducing their kinetic energy and mass. At last, on some distance from of centre explosion there comes a critical moment, when the motion speed of debris becomes noticeably less speed of light, thus total mass sharply decreases and becomes to possible decay of more small-sized supernuclei in debris. At full decay of all supernuclei debris moves already on inertia thus the matter of "shell" as unobservable bodies’ places on a periphery of a galaxy behind its visible sizes. All components both Universe as a whole, and spherical and elliptic galaxies at the end moves on elliptical orbits with an eccentricity close to 1. The initial supernucleus can not blow up all at once, since the electrostatic intensity is maximum on its surface, therefore process of decay is represented as a series of explosions. The outside shell dumped, thus the central part is some time in a metastable state at the expense of pressure of the first explosion, then the second shell with smaller energy is dumped etc. A central core of a galaxy, zone of ultrarelativistic velocities, zone of decay of secondary supernuclei, zone of inertial motion and zone of oddments of "shell" thus is shaped. Therefore for some spherical and elliptic galaxies the astronomers watch aliasing of brightness in a direction to center of galaxies. This aliasing grows out not only repeated explosions of a central supernucleus, but also periodic explosions of a galaxy at the expense of drop of matter to center and formation of a new supernucleus. As at Big Fireworks (decay of supernuclei) the spray of debris in the miscellaneous sides is equality probability, the Universe as a whole should have an internal part from a stationary value of mean density and outside, where mean density of matter is inversely proportional to a square of distance from center and where the scattering matter does not contain any more supernuclei. That and to galaxies of any type concerns.
The analysis of explosion of a fast rotated body is more interesting to that the described mechanism of explosion of a supernucleus is spread in an equatorial plane of rotation and is seen directly. Thus the spiral galaxies will be formed. The operation of law of preservation of a impulse determines the symmetrical form of any galaxy. For a rotated body under the same law the decay of a supernucleus should look as two identical flows of matter, directional in the counter sides. As relativistic mass of these flows is huge, they practically, are rectilinear for preservation of the law of an angular momentum (S=mVr, at m V0). When the velocity of flows will appear below than speed of light, the decay of more small-sized supernuclei will begin. Thus, at single-pass explosion of a rotated supernucleus the intercrossed galaxy will be formed, the end of bar to which corresponds one a start of a zone of decay of secondary supernuclei. As a result of sharp decreasing of mass on the end of bar, the development of a principle of conservation of moment of momentum urges matter to be bent as a spiral branch. Thus, the single-pass explosion of a supernucleus results in formation of two spiral branches of a galaxy. As a result of the subsequent explosions will be again formed bars and pair spiral branches. Therefore for spiral galaxies the even number of spiral branches should be watched. Here it is necessary to mark, that because of miscellaneous velocities of orbital motion of a material depending on radius and bars and the spiral sleeves are gradually spread. This is promoted also by multiple repeated explosions and not so high speed of rotation of a parent supernucleus. For a not so fast rotated parent supernucleus the galaxies SO (lenticular) being a transition type between elliptical and spiral will be formed for which one alongside with an elliptical part it is possible to distinguish on a periphery oddments of spiral sleeves. For our spiral Galaxy and the nebulas Andromeda are legibly traced М-figurative curves of rotation, which one can be interpreted as initial explosion of a parent supernucleus and repeated explosion. At each explosion in a zone of ultrarelativistic velocities and in a zone of decay of secondary supernuclei mean density of matter practically is constant, therefore this part of a galaxy is gyrated as a solid body - orbital velocity almost linearly is incremented with radius. In a zone of inertial motion mean density of matter is inversely proportional to a square of radius; therefore rotation rate practically is constant. М-figurative curve of rotation is received by addition of curves of two consecutive explosions. In this connection for such galaxies should be watched till four spiral sleeves.
The epoch of supernuclei near to center of Big Bang of the Universe was finished rather fast, approximately 5-6 billions of years back. In result the galaxies of that or diverse type were formed, and they transfer to a rather stationary state, which one is upset only by repeated formation of supernuclei at the expense of a collapse. However spraying of a neutron liquid gives to its "drops" of relativistic velocities of motion. Therefore repeated formation of supernuclei in drops results in the much greater share of mass of a supernucleus in matching with mass of a drop (I shall remind, that for a drop with small absolute speed of motion mass of a supernucleus before a gap makes 5.1×10-22 total masses). At repeated explosions of supernuclei the circumferential drops receive so large summary relativistic mass, that the supernucleus in them becomes metastable and takes all volume of a drop. At general deceleration of expansion of the Universe at the expense of gravitation the circumferential drops become unstable; there is a gap of a supernucleus and formation of galaxies. The described picture explains the law of Habble and existence of quasars. Simultaneously it confirms that the process of expansion of the Universe now was strongly slowed or practically was finished about 5 billions of years back. Otherwise we would not watch quasars, which one mean boundary of the Universe. Thus, the decay of supernuclei in the Universe as a whole has zone structure: on a periphery we the intensive process of formation of galaxies apparent, which one in our area of space for a long time was finished (quasars), we are closer to center apparent of a Safert's galaxy, radio galaxies and N-galaxies for which one the decay of a supernucleus is close to completion and near to center - "quiet" galaxies. After the first explosion of a supernucleus inside a neutron body a supernucleus again will be formed, as the debris can not take out in space all neutrons liquid, there is a repeated explosion etc. Outwardly it is exhibited in an alternation of brilliance of objects. The period of activity depends on mass of a body, rotation rate, temperature, displacement of a supernucleus concerning center of a body, simultaneous formation of several supernuclei etc. In an ideal case the period of activity corresponds to operation of the good timer. Any neutron body radiates in space a continuous stream of electrons, protons and antineutrino because of instability of a neutron. At reaching mass of a neutron body comparable with mass of planets, it is already unfit to form a supernucleus in center, therefore instead of a single supernucleus the nuclei of customary elements crystallize. Here it is possible to agree with official notions, that at the expense of fast and sluggish capture of neutrons in these conditions the formation of nuclei down to uranium is possible. Apparently, that the formation of transuranium and super heavy, already died out in our area space, of isotopes is possible only at decay of supernuclei. Thus, in the Universe formation of the steadiest nuclei iron and nickel happens both "from above" - at decay of supernuclei and "from below" - at synthesis of nuclei in a neutron liquid. At formation of customary atoms radius of a neutron drop is incremented approximately in 30000 times. If total mass is rather great, the body receives the equilibrium spherical form, and if is small, as a result of asymmetrical thermal losses the space body will have the improper form, as we see it for asteroids. If mass of a neutron drop is insufficient for formation of customary nuclei, such drop will forms a cloud of hydrogen as a result of decay of neutrons. Thus, behind visible boundaries of the Universe or galaxies there should be invisible cold bodies planetary and planetoidal of the sizes.
The enunciated physical model is rather clear both is consistent and will allow constructing an adequate mathematical model of formation of galaxies. Some integrals of equations do not express through elementary functions, therefore here can help or reasonable allowances, not leaving for a framework physical model, or computer simulation.
The developed concepts of formation of the Universe and galaxies completely contradict a theory of relativity. For example, very sharp growth of mass at formation of bar of intercrossed galaxies and its so sharp decreasing at motion of matter in the counter sides with velocity of almost equal speed of light indicates that the gravitational field is spread with velocity considerably superior speed of light.
In conclusion of this section of the book the author wants to state following. The agents of official science in fundamental partitions of physics bound with a microcosm up to the last capability will resist to ideas of new physics. This is promoted by following circumstance. The microcosm cannot be watched directly, a broad field for scientific gamble therefore is unclosed, official physics has succeeded in which one. Worked a vast arsenal of artful methods for elimination "of difficulties of the theory", therefore of physicists while feel is comfortable. It's quite another matter the astronomers and cosmologists. Error notions at a level of atom, atomic nuclei both elementary particles and theory of relativity in two faces - SRT and GRT have put a modern cosmology in a completely desperate position. Any attempts to understand evolution suffices large mass result in a unequivocal and sad perspective - "to black holes". Though in space it is impossible to put experiments, but results of catchy experiments put by the Nature is possible to see directly by own eyes. As a result of a field for scientific gamble minimum is becomes. Therefore author hopes, what exactly the cosmologists and the astronomers first favorably will perceive ideas of new physics and will take them on arming.
In chapter 6.1. was shown, that the electron-binding energy with a proton in neutrons of atom nuclei is about identical to any nuclei and makes 0.76476 MeV. It corresponds to temperature of 6 billions degrees. Apparently, that at such temperature the neutrons in nuclei of atoms will lose stability and will be disintegrated under the scheme: . In outcome any nucleus is transformed into proton formation, which one any more can not be retained by nuclear forces and under operating of electrostatic repulsive forces of positive protons from each other they scatter in the miscellaneous sides with huge speeds. At braking electrons and protons in ambient matter, temperature it is increased even more and the process develops explosion-visual, if the ambient matter has sufficient density. Outwardly this phenomenon looks, as the efflux from cores of galaxies of clouds of Hydrogenium and electromagnetic radiation in a broad band of waves-length. As the phenomena accompanying proton transmutation of nuclei and decay of a supernucleus in many are similar, we shall consider differences in conditions of a development of these effects. Apparently, what for proton transmutation temperature 6×109 К is necessary only. Density of matter thus has not value. Nuclear density of matter is indispensable only for formation of a supernucleus, and its temperature has not value. If our scientists reach sometime temperature proton transmutation, will convert the Earth into a huge cloud of Hydrogenium. In real conditions of space the collapse of space bodies with simultaneous increase of temperature and density of matter is frequently watched. If the collapse takes place slowly and the surplus heat is enough fast removed, the formation of a neutron star is probably and at further increase of density - formation of a supernucleus. If heat loss at a collapse small, at large collapsing mass any conceivable temperatures are accessible and proton transmutation becomes inevitable long before formation of a neutron body and the more so achievements of nuclear density of matter. One more difference proton transmutation from decay of a supernucleus is encompass byed volume, that all possible elements and their isotopes including those short-lived isotopes and transuranium elements in the latter case will be formed, which one for a long time have vanished in an adjacent space. At proton transmutation of nuclei Hydrogenium will be formed only and the helium in a small amount is possible.
The fact of capture by a nucleus of atom of the proximate orbital electron (е-capture) is known. Thus one of protons of a nucleus is transformed into a neutron. The е- capture is watched for nuclei with deviation of an optimal constitution of the nucleus in the side of excess of protons (see chapter 12.2 and formula (12.1.13.) chapter 12.1). It is clear, that by an electron capture in a usual terms it is impossible to transform all protons of a nucleus into neutrons. The optimal constitution of the nucleus is reached usually at single electron-capture.
To tear off all electrons from nuclei iron (more high-gravity nuclei us do not interest) temperature is necessary 71×106 К. At this temperature the matter represents plasma from naked nuclei and electrons in which one the thermonuclear reactions are possible. As a matter of fact it is a star. Indicated temperature is easily reached at a collapse of gas-dust clouds of mass approximately to equal 4 masses of the Sun. In described conditions the electrons, being interfere with by nuclei, transmit to them the moment of momentum and remain only with an own moment of momentum , where - fine structure constant. Such electron is look-alike to a superconducting electron (сhapter 5.5.1) and will forming with a proton of a nucleus a neutron (сhapter 9.6.1). Density g of a star in which one takes place neutronization of nuclei depends on its radius and if it is peer to solar radius, = 0.52 g/cm3. Apparently, that it is endothermic neutronization process since as a matter of fact, necessary to shatter step-by-step nuclei, substituting positive protons on neutrons. Neutrons is weakly interact with each other and will not formed crystalline structure what is the nucleus of atom. Therefore further collapse does not result in increase of temperature of a star while it will not become bodily neutron. The same reason causes very much low speed neutronization. As neutronization magnetic moments of neutrons are step-by-step arranges in one direction, there is a powerful magnetic field and the star as a whole starts fast to turn around, that the common torque of neutrons and star remained a constant.
If the presentational star at a collapse will reach density 1013 g/cm3 that energy release in this process will make 7.345×1053 ergs. Total of nucleones in a star 4.75×1057. On each nucleone the energy is account 1.55×10-4 ergs or 96.7 MeV. The obtained value demonstrates, that the evolved energy has enough not only for destruction of all nuclei, but also for compensation of heat losses at long-lived process of formation of a neutron star. What further destiny of a neutron star? Its temperature is close to temperature proton transmutation (chapter 29.7.3), and density is close to nuclear density and formation of a supernucleus. Therefore explosion of a neutron star from proton transmutation or the supernucleus practically are equiprobable. The rather long-lived existence «cold» of a neutron star is so interquartile so long as it not «will thaw» from radiation and decay of neutrons. If will be received so, that the neutron star suddenly will get under gravitational radius and will become «a black hole», it will turn out insulated in relation to heat- and mass-transfer and in very short time will finish the existence on one of the scripts, described in chapter 29.2. Last version: temperature of a neutron star at cooling becomes less than 71×106 K and the reverse of formation of normal nuclei starts. At further cooling the neutron star can be burst mechanically under operating of centrifugal forces, since at a crystallization of normal matter the volume of a system is augmented approximately in 35000 times. Thus in space the neutron splashes and miscellaneous size debris of normal matter scatter. The large debris receive the equilibrium spherical form, more small-sized - out of shape, and from small-sized neutron splashes the clouds of Hydrogen will be formed and crystallize the asteroids pyriform of the shape because of irregular heat wastes.
About 10 billions of years back in a huge body of the Protouniverse in mass 1,3×1056 g and close to nuclear density has arisen a supernucleus, and when it has achieved mass 6,63×1034 g the outside envelope any more could not keep in grandiose explosion with energy 4,6×1090 ergs, call which one western humourists Bing Bang, and I prefer to call Large Fireworks. The relativistic debris begin to scatter in all sides and, at loss of relativistic mass, have begun repeated decaies with originating of galaxies. It is the period of radial propagation of quasars. One of debris has fly into to us and has created our native Galaxy. Its more small-sized debris at the decay have created a halo of spherical stellar association and galaxies - satellite. On it the wild youth of a Galaxy was finished also its evolution has passed in rather quiet stage.
In the monography is shown, that any moving radiant radiates along-track direction more vigorous photons, than back and is look-alike to a photon rocket organized on braking. The calculations demonstrate, that at the expense of photon braking the Sun will lose all kinetic energy (250 kms / сек) behind 9.2 billion of years, and Galaxy (600 kms / сек) behind 22 billion of years. Therefore all stars of a Galaxy with progressively increased acceleration direct in center of a Galaxy, as in the jumbo funnel.
It is clear, that in center of a Galaxy the accumulation of stars indefinitely to be prolonged can not. At the expense of a coalescence of sidereal material there are superstars with nuclear density. The objects with greater density in the nature do not exist, that demonstrates impossibility to place nucleones each other. On a surface of these stars the supernuclear film will be permanently arised, which one at once is droppable by the way space radiations and clouds of hydrogen. Mass of this film only 10-35 from mass of a superstar, but it will be arise and is dumped with a high speed. In jumbo superstars the formation of a supernucleus inside an star is possible. In this case mass of a supernucleus can be on 13 orders more than mass of a supernuclear film and before to blast an star from inside, mass of a supernucleus can reach 5×10-22 from mass of a superstar. At explosion of such supernucleus in a plane of a Galaxy the young dispersed sidereal flocks will be rejected. Thus, at the expense of a coalescence and explosions, inside a core of a Galaxy there is a whole hierarchy of the sizes of superstars. Together with dispersed sidereal flocks in a plane of a Galaxy huge quantity of dust and gas will be rejected, which one are combustible for maintenance of combustion of stars and formation of new young stars. As a whole, in any galaxy there is a continuous process of a circuit of material, however, it step-by-step die because of energy losses on radiations of galaxies.
Processes in cores of elliptic galaxies is basic same. A difference only that a viscera of these galaxies we not see, as against spiral galaxies. Each star of an elliptic galaxy a long time is in an apofocus of hardly prolated orbit, therefore outside fur coat effectively hides these «of crew cuts» from ours look the internal contents. However, in many elliptic galaxies it is possible to note step change of brightness at deleting from center and «hairs» - tracks specially of potent ejections from center. It confirms the unified mechanism of galaxies evolution.
The fine site of Oleg Akimov Sceptic-Ratio has inspired me to write this chapter.
Title of this chapter I have borrowed from the like book of John Horgan. Now John Horgan heads Center for Science Writings at the Stevens Institute of Technology. Being considered the journalist of a world level, he writes not only about science, but also and on any other urgent questions exciting society. General sense of his like book that in XX century the science was finished also we do not expect the any fundamental discoveries, but only engineering processing of elder ideas.
The latest stagnation in science is not new and unexpected. The history of science has gone through set of such periods. The main causes of crisis and stagnation lie in an obstinate faith in the approved scientific notions and reluctance to be engaged in criticism of these notions. Earlier such of a criticism was simply dangerous (Copernicus, Galilei), and now has become impossible. Try to criticize a quantum mechanics or relativity theory, with which one admire not only orthodoxes, but also homemaker, them knock home in a head majesty of these scientific achievements, though almost nobody knows, in what it consists. With deepening of crisis in science the orthodoxes do not search for a routes of a way out of the crisis, and invent different fraudful methods for support reputation. For example, invention of lasers, computers, the cellular transmissions, usage of energy of atom and other assign to a quantum mechanics. In this case, the society should be grateful not to the fathers of a quantum mechanics, and scientist-practice, which one with minimum financial costs reaches essential practical outcomes. Compare to the theorists, which one after the false theories of a quantum mechanics and the relativity theory in general anything new have not invented and in last 70 years are engaged elaboration of the crazy imaginations, attempting to construct «the theory all» by affiliation of the bulldog with rhinoceros. Instead of honestly being recognized: «we can not construct the theory of particles and ground of this theory to calculate a spectrum of weights, half-life, the channels of decay and other properties of fundamental particles» the theorists use naivety of the chiefs of the states and tax bearers to extort maximal money for the imaginations. About a micro cosmos such vast experimental stuff is accumulated, that it is a shame to appeal ask money to new colliders, it is necessary to sit down table and to interpret stored. For «endorsement» of scientific successes, the orthodoxes have elaborated the whole set of methods borrowed for the weavers from a fairy tale about the bare king:
1. Chart of Feynman,
2. Perfect vacuum and virtual particles,
3. Renormalization and regularization,
4. Fine structure constant,
5. Perturbation theory and radiation corrections.
6. Decomposing «on small parameter».
All these methods are intended for pertly of adjustment under the answer or that it would be desirable to receive. To be not unfounded, I shall result in some examples. As is known, the magnetic moment of a charged particle is connected to its mechanical moment and is conditioned by rotation of a particle. Now simple problem: how it is possible to consider a magnetic moment of an electron, if we do not know, with what speed it is gyrated also what its radius of gyration? Nevertheless, the orthodoxes «receive» value of an abnormal magnetic moment of an electron with accuracy 15 signs and are proud of this cheating. The orthodoxes everywhere praise highly exclusive accuracy of a general theory of relativity and revile a law of universal gravitation of Newton. But ask for them: and what curvature of space in a solar System and how it varies for each planet and satellites? This problem remains without the answer; though without such answer it is impossible calculate any orbit. Ask for orthodoxes: how they contrive to receive from a Schrödinger equations «exact» outcomes, though a potential well, in which one there are electrons in atom, has not anywhere not vertical walls, therefore formation of standing waves anywhere is impossible? Ask for Heisenberg: for what he play foul, by exchanging in expression for an angular momentum the radius of gyration on some spacing interval «x» and by that, by keeping dimension of an angular momentum same, has distorted completely physical sense of this expression? And what has made Pauli? He has invented a principle of exception, which one urges orthodox fermions to have miscellaneous condition. Thereby system of fermions as a whole will take a condition with the greatest possible entropy and any natural processes in this system will become impossible. All these facts speak, that the theorists not only vainly receive the salary, but also claim for criminal prosecution for fraud. I do not speak about uncountable examples of an ignoring of appearing inconsistencies, juggling and going fraud. For a long time it is time this gang to disperse, and all system of science considerably to reform, differently science will be long to be tramped in place, though the life urges awakely to act, as all new threats to mankind propagate and progressively increase.
Now we attempt to find out the causes of the next stagnation in science. The main cause, certainly, that the orthodoxes have omitted the Iron Curtain, through which one can not with the party penetrate critic, new ideas, though critic is vitally indispensable, first of all, them. Besides the internal rules, tradition and policy of orthodox science are similar to a totalitarian regime. In modern science the authorities have the same value, as the thieves in the law in a criminal community. The system of opening-up of young scientific staff eliminates a development of talents, everyone owe play along deliriums of the scientific chief. Each of them the first half of life - slave for the scientific chief, and second half of life (when the chief will die) - slave holder, exploiting young talents.
Error of Newton.
To not take time for listing of defects of modern science, it is more useful to be switch those series concrete errors, which one have resulted, in the final accounting, in full discrediting of this area of human activity. At once it is possible to show by the pin on great Newton, which one by the first law has transferred an arrow of a development trend of science to a new route. The change of a course has taken place quietly and is inconspicuous for everything, then the locomotive of sciences hurrying in country of True, has gone to country of Nonsense. Nobody has found time carefully to analyze the first Newton's law. At such analysis a bit later becomes clear, that all free bodies move on a screw line, and the first law is applicable not to the body, and to a mathematical fiction: axes of a screw trajectory. At once there is clear a physical nature of wave-corpuscle dualism and all outcomes of a quantum mechanics and many more easily to be received by a classic way. Bring to light inanity of a principle of uncertainty of Heisenberg, as customary record of an angular momentum and many other things is clarified. Thus, any «wave» properties for micro particles no and all gamble in this causing are necessary for sawing by a razor Okkama. The further analysis of the causes of screw motion results in a conclusion about originating of a gravidynamic field at motion of gravitational charges, is similar, how there is a magnetic field at motion of electric charges. From these positions of Newton it is possible to consider as the godparent father by greatest lie under a title «quantum mechanics». Here I shall not criticize this false science, such of a critic is scattered under the monograph. I shall point only one infamous puncture of orthodoxes as a result of which one they sit down in such dirty pool what to be washed there is no capability. When the Schrödinger has composed the equation, the theorists have take out from the sleeve of a trump ace and solemnly have annunciated: look - quantum mechanics results precisely in the same equations for radius of atom of hydrogen, electron-binding energy and energy levels it, as well as the simple theory of Bohr, affirmed experimentally, so a quantum mechanics - valid theory! However orthodoxes do not perceive, that the formulas, obtained by them, and schemes of levels are suitable only for the description of rydberg atoms, which one can be received in very specific laboratory conditions of cryogenic temperatures, high vacuum and irradiation of atoms by lasers with a tunability frequency ensuring multiphoton absorption. In the nature rydberg atoms do not meet. It is possible to suspect their brief existence in some rarefied space clouds, but such supposition does not braves of good critics. Thus, passion desire of the adherents of a quantum mechanics to adapt the theory with an experimental data has rendered them disservice.
Error of Galilei.
The statement about that it is impossible to define, sitting inside a closed cabin of the ship, it is gone or reposes are erratic. Roll a pendulum hanged to a ceiling of a cabin, and you with surprise will find out, that the plane of swinging of a pendulum slowly is turned, attempting to keep the direction at rotation of the Earth. Besides your pendulum will react to a position of the Sun and moon concerning the ship pursuant to affluxes, provoke by them. As the motion of all free bodies on a screw trajectory is absolute motion, «all-inertial» reference systems basically does not exist, therefore, Galilei has proclaimed a false principle relativity of mechanical motions and automatically there was the godparent father second by greatest lie - to a Einstein's relativity theory. Large lack of science is that comes up too much wishing there to leave a footprint, any new idea as soon as is proclaimed. Horde conceptually of hungry theorists is pounced on this idea and in a short time leads up it to perfect nonsense. The Einstein both company perverts of space and time have given freedom to the theoretic maniacs to scoff at these concepts, as soon as it is possible. Let's take, for an example, «customary» space-time a la of a relativity theory. Apparently, that in three-dimensional space through any point it is possible to up build infinite set of planes, and the time axis should be perpendicular by each of these planes. Therefore hybrid from space and time is impossible. Anybody till now not can to demonstrate, whether space can have more than three measurements and as - or to be deformed, therefore all reasoning on the multidimensional spaces, «mole's burrows» and other nonsense invoke desire to place the similar ecclesiasts in medical institution. Quant mania, strike of orthodoxes, occasionally receives the completely misshapen forms. For example, orthodoxes, similarly to the children play with bricks, cook up from fundamental constants expression having dimension of length («Planck length») by value, order 10-33 cm and, thus, «quantized» space. If along this fancy length to let a light beam, it will overcome it for definite time, therefore and time will appear «quantized». Quantize gravitation, while, the mind does not suffice, but, allowing improved orthodox methods of rape of physics, this «theory» long it is not necessary to wait.
Error of Maxwell.
One more faulty direction in science - unifying theories, here again Maxwell has blossom out to get science in dock. By united electrical and magnetic phenomena in the electromagnetic theory, the Maxwell has made a first step, behind which one not only begin to walk, and have run, at a breakneck speed, to integrate ball of wax. Against the theory of the Maxwell speak the following facts. 1. Absence of ether in any form in a blank space of the Universe. The suppositions of the theorists about existence of an ether (for each of them the native ether not similar on remaining) is necessary falters about an internal inconsistency and inconsistency with the observed facts. If really there was objective ether (naturally, only of one kind), it would not be required create of an ethereal zoological garden. 2. On the other hand, the free motion of a charged particle creates in ambient space variable magnetic and electrical field, but any electromagnetic radiation we is not observed, though the ultrarays should create such radiation of considerable intensity. «Electromagnetic radiation» we are observed only at negative acceleration of electric charges. In this connection applications of orthodoxes are false, that the classic model of epicyclic atom is impossible because of fast energy loss at the expense of radiation. I have demonstrated that on a circular orbit in general there no any acceleration of an electron. Is received, that the orthodoxes deceive themselves, since being not confused at all, reason on a spin-orbit interaction, for example. The details can be found out from chapter 11.5.1 of my monograph. Here it is important to understand, that any «the theory all» is a fiction contradicting to fundamental laws of nature. The uncontrollable tendency to misery-theorists to creation of such theory is easy for understanding, since in it is possible to set up any delirium, which one to test in essence is impossible.
Error of Mitchell and Laplace.
These scientific at the end of XVII centuries have described formation of superdense objects, which one do not let out even light from the gravitational embraces. The similar objects now call as black holes. Naturally, that the theorists were found, which one are successfully fed on these holes led by Stephen W. Hawking. It is understandable, that the initial notions of Mitchell and Laplace have distorted up to unrecognizability and the comprehensions of a phenomenon and have not reached. Hawking come to even up to the statement, that the black holes «have not a hair», i.e. they same bald, as the majority of the orthodox theorists. Unfortunately, Mitchell and Laplace the notion about the device of atom nuclei had not and did not know what to tighten material up to supernuclear density it is impossible, as it is impossible nucleons to squeeze each other. But to the even greater regret it is necessary to state, that about it the and modern theorists of black holes notions have not.
Mitchell and Laplace could prematurely die of envy, if they have acquainted with head-achievement of the modern theorists - «singularity» having the zero size and infinite density. The men of science consider that the singularities live inside each black hole, and the queen of singularities has initiates for the Universe at Bing Bang. Why should be blasted out that owes collapse - silence. The answer no and on a problem, why the Universe should have a beginning, and the end to it provides a law of universal gravitation. This answer no on that to the simple cause, that of physics have stopped up of companies to the philosophers, differently we have learned, that alternative infinite in time to oscillations of the Universe does not exist. Besides it always same, since the collapse can not tighten itless sizes of a body with nuclear density in radius, approximately, equal orbit of Mars, and the Big Bang can not scatter debris of the Universe on infinite radius, since the Universe as a whole always represents a black hole with density, approximately, in 6 times more critical.
Further to analyze crazy ideas and errors of modern science it is not meaningful. If we want, that the science should be prolonged, we owe up to the basis to shatter an infrastructure of modern science and to upbuild all anew on the modern democratic basis.
When there is no comprehension of phenomena, there is a faith. Naturally, that the faith can not be uniform, as true. Therefore any doctrinal statement is scattered on set of sects, each of which interprets phenomena in a measure of the imaginations. In this sense the modern science by nothing differs from religion. In each area there are prophets anointed on true, and any of a critic is not enabled, differently faith disappears. Both the religious sects step-by-step kill religion, and the scientific sects kill science. I shall result in examples. A sect of the believers in the theory in all. A sect of the theory of strings. A sect «of black holes» led by Stephen Hawking. A sect of a quantum mechanics, the members by which one do not perceive sense creed. The sect of a relativity theory, which one in the subsect of a general theory of relativity is compelled completely to emulate a law of universal gravitation, differently it will not perceive seriously. A sect of a «dark» matter and energy. Sect of «inflationary» stage of the Universe and many other, which one to not enumerate any more. Any scientific notions of listed sects do not maintain severe critics, therefore they attempt to be isolated both from public and from a remaining scientific world. For own advertising, society give only ready prescriptions world outlook, not butt into in dangerous details. To be not unfounded, I shall result in to a critic of a sect feed blowers the Universe.
The observations demonstrate, that the Universe not only dilates, but dilates accelerately, that is completely not clear if to start with initial Big Bang. The galaxies should scatter after explosion with some deboosting because of operating a gravitation. In chapter 29.7.1 the depleting answer to this apparent paradox is given. This paradox has become the foundation of a sect «feed blowers». In their opinion, after Big Bang has become to be swell space, and, and besides artful way. Intergalactic space extends, and space inside galaxies, inside sidereal epicyclic systems, interatomic space and space inside atoms remains invariable. Nay that anybody in earnest does not know, that such is space (I consider, what is it intervals between bodies not being as physical objects), «feed blowers» excrete also some kinds of space: intergalactic - one, and all remaining - absolutely other, with other properties, that is visible directly in surrounding objects. Thus they directly contradict a relativity theory (either do not perceive, or ignore this fact), on which one in the given point of space there can not be miscellaneous values of its curvature. Besides at an inflate of the Universe, its curvature decreases, that on the Einstein means disappearance of a matter, and it contradicts a fundamental energy conservation law. In the total, the members of this sect introduce society a completely absurd picture. The Universe is inflates, as a children's balloon, and the galaxies in it do not participate (glued by the way of pictures on this balloon), therefore spacing interval between galaxies is augmented. The details by the way by that space crawls away under each galaxy in all sides without a creak, are not specify. You, probably, attempt to understand modern scientific notions? Vainly! Now not that times. There is no time to perfect, voice, speech, moral, art and science. Everywhere cheap counterfeit. We hurry up to erase ourselves and Nature.
The scientists measure red displacement in spectra of remote objects and with surprise find out, that the further there is an object, the its speed of deleting more. In this occasion numerous gamble about the accelerated extension of the Universe at once have appeared, and as a reason it consider «dark energy», though do not know, that this such, besides that it as promotes acceleration of the extension - any more for what to be linked. Have recollected a lambda - term in the Einstein's equations (introducing which one the Einstein has recognized as the largest error) and piled up around of these «facts» huge quantity of fancy fabrications.
At the same time, as a matter of fact, any paradox is not present. The apparent and infamous error of interpreters of red displacement is, that the computed speed of deleting of space objects attribute to the moment of observation while it should be attributed on billions of years back, when the received now photons were emitted by the remote object. Then all at once becomes on the places without the problems, sucked from the finger, of the accelerated extension of the Universe and «of dark energy», causing this extension. The further object of analysis, the the characteristics of its radiation are closer on time to the moment of Big Bang, i.e. its speed of dispersion was more and, in a limit, comes nearer to speed of light. Apparently, that any violations of law of a universal gravitation is not present also Universe after Big Bang should be dilated with negative, instead of with positive acceleration pursuant to this law. Therefore we arrest, approximately, scalingup of speed of deleting with increase of spacing interval up to objects pursuant to the law Habble.
The laymans on nearbyscientific forums can forgive this fallacy, but when similar «problems» is active consider the solid scientists, it speaks about not capacities for acting of science and its comatose condition.