Huge merit of the А. Einstein is that he has offered version of the mechanism of a long-range action of a gravitational field (other serious versions of the mechanism of action of a gravitational field does not exist at all in science) as against of the Newton, for which one a long-range action of a gravitational field and its infinite rate of propagation did not call doubts, though he and did not uncover the mechanism of its action.

In the basis GRT the principle of equivalence lies, on which one it is impossible action of a gravitational field to distinguish from constant acceleration, with which one the spectator is gone.

Here there is a not superfluous quotation from the book: D.R. Merkin, Brief history of a classic mechanics, "Physical and Mathematical literature", М., 1994, page 133, where the author quotes work of the Einstein and supplies with her commenting. "...Therefore at state-of-the-art of our knowledge there are no basis to consider, that the reference systems 1 and 2 in any relation differ from each other, and in further we shall guess a full physical equivalence of a gravitational field and relevant acceleration of a reference system". In the further Einstein repeatedly returned to this problem, changed an enunciating and designations, but the entity of main thought remained former. Eventually, the words "a full physical equivalence" were exchanged by words "a principle of equivalence"; this principle together with others (we do not stop on them) lies in the basis of a general theory of relativity (GRT). Before to pass to further, we shall make two remarks.

а. The principle of equivalence concerns only to gravitational fields and the is not spread to other fields - circumstance, about which one forget some scientists.

b. In principle equivalence are considered uniform accelerations, homogeneous gravitational fields. It means that this principle has local character, fair for a rather small part of space and restricted time".

Apparently, that the limitation GRT by small area of space and short period brings to nothing its practical usage.

Let's consider two cases.

1. We moves with constant by acceleration g=9.8 m/sec2 in the spacecraft at the expense of infinite generosity of the sponsors ensuring us by combustible, in spite of the fact that for maintenance of this constant acceleration it is necessary to burn a progressively increased fuel because of relativistic increase of mass of the spacecraft. It is uneasy to consider under the formula t=Vt/g, that speed of light we "shall reach" rather fast - in 33 days. In 2-3 weeks we already can in hundreds miscellaneous ways determine that mass of all ambient bodies is incremented.

2. We sit on a surface of the Earth approximately in a homogeneous gravitational field and we attempt to determine change of mass of surrounding objects. It is possible to wait though up to Second Advent - anything to find out it will be not possible. This example clean disclaims a principle of equivalence GRT. Nay: by uplifting on some meters some body, we by any ways can not commit change of mass of this body and at the same time easily we shall determine by modern instruments change of intensity of a gravitational field.

New neoclassical physics easily explains all experimental "affirming" GRT, such, as the abnormal rotation of a perihelion of a Mercury, bending of light beams at passage them near to massive bodies and red displacement in a radiation spectrum released by massive bodies, as a photon, as well as any other particle, has a gravitational charge.

"The measurements, executed recently with pin-point accuracy of the form of the Sun have shown, however, that the Sun slightly oblate for poles and have small convexity for equator. How to interpret results of these measurements, for the present it is not so clear; if they are correct, it is necessary to introduce to apparent value of precession rate of orbit of Mercury in one more correction component 4" for centuries. The introduction of such correction would baffle the consent between experiment and prediction of a general theory of relativity. If will be established, that this new correction really is valid, then the radical elaboration of the theory can be demanded". J.B. Marion, Physics and the physical Universe, “World”, Moscow, 1975, page 377. Here it is necessary to note, that the full rotation of a perihelion of a Mercury makes 5599.74"0.41", and calculated on the theory of the Newton 5557.18"0.85", therefore additive in 43" under the theory of the Einstein can be stipulated by many reasons which are not having the relations to GRT.

"...The displacements of positions of several hundreds stars were measured, and on the average light deflection has appeared equal 2"; the general theory of relativity forecasts for it value 1.75". Unfortunately, the accuracy of these measurements makes only about 10 % and a series of results contradicts each other, so it is impossible to consider the indicated measurements as final affirming of the theory". J.B. Marion, Physics and the physical Universe, “World”, Moscow, 1975, page 378.

"In a general theory of relativity is established, that the light quanta redden, when they are spread from area greater on an absolute value of a gravity potential to smaller, i.e. leave for a strong field of gravitation. For example, the photons which are going from the Sun or in the other case, going bottom-up in lab for a surface of the Earth. The photons moving in laboratory experiment from the top downward become violeter. Despite of a smallness of these effects, they are measured". I.D. Novikov, Evolution of universe, "Science", М., 1983, page 54. "These experiments do not represent check of a general theory of relativity, as the prediction of gravitational displacement can be made already on the basis of only one principle of equivalence (and it only one of postulates of the theory) both ratio between mass and energy Е=mс2". J.B. Marion, Physics and the physical Universe, “World”, Moscow, 1975, page 379.

Let's count up value of gravitational red displacement on the basis of neoclassical notions. Mass of a photon radiated from a surface of some star:


Energy which is expended a photon on overcoming of a gravitational attraction of a star:


where M - mass of a star, r0 - its radius, G - gravitational constant. Same energy will change the frequency photon from n0 up to n:


Substituting (25.1) in (25.2) and equating (25.3), we can find after some transformations expression for a relative frequency change of a spectral line . This expression is those:


Substituting in (25.4) numerical data for the Sun, we shall discover, that the red displacement for it will make 2×10-6. It is possible in (25.4) to express mass of a star through its volume and mean density:


where - density. In this case it is interesting to count up, what there should be "star" having nuclear density (1014 g/cm3), that it could not radiate photons (z=¥). Radius it is received equal 570 kms, and mass is about peer to 40 masses of the Sun. I address attention of the reader that in (25.4) there is absent a frequency of a photon, and the red displacement is determined only in parameters of a star. On this basis the alternate interpretation of the law Habble is possible (see (25.5)): the red displacement of radiation of remote objects of the Universe is stipulated by proportional increase of density or their sizes depending on distance up to these objects. This interpretation allows introducing in the essential correctives at operational use of the law Habble in calculations of motion of remote objects of the Universe.

If a relative frequency change to calculate under the formula , from the formulas (25.1), (25.2) and (25.3) we shall receive:


The formulas (25.4), (25.5) and (25.6) are approximate (since (25.2) is fair only at removal of a photon on indefinitely large distance). The formula (25.6) coincides with formula under the theory of the Einstein and is tested experimentally on red displacement on a limb of the Sun (see, for example, O. Struve etc. Elementary astronomy. М., 1967, page 427-428). Thus, the red displacement of radiation from massive objects has not the relation to GRT and SRT.

The precise calculation of a gravitational frequency change of a photon can be executed on the basis of the second Newton's laws for a photon: F×dS=hd, dS=Cdt, whence:


where h - Planck constant, C - speed of light. An equation (25.7) - second Newton's laws for a photon, whence acceleration:


Equating (25.7) forces of a gravitational attraction, after some transformations, we shall receive a differential equation for a photon. The solution of this equation for a relative frequency change Z will be:


If r, to resolved an exponent in a series and to limit by two first terms of decomposition, we shall receive (25.6).

New physics considers, that mass of bodies (gravitational charge) is already there is their relativistic inert mass (see theory of elementary particles), since it arises at circular move (from a point of view of orthodox physics - with constant by a centripetal acceleration) neutrino in elementary particles. Therefore inert and gravitational mass same and to speak about their "equivalence" it is needless. Thus, the separation of mass on inert and gravitational (experimentally is demonstrated, that they are peer with very large accuracy) is an only scholastic problem, since gravitational mass as a matter of fact is inert. In this connection, far-fetched is also principle of equivalence of these masses put by the А. Einstein in the basis of a general theory of relativity. The relevant price and most this theory (correct development of the theory which is coming from of a postulate, that А=А should result: А=А and no more that).

"Basically anywhere does not follow, that mass creating field of gravitation, determines also inertia that bodies. However experiment has shown, that inert and gravitational mass are peer each other. This fundamental law of the nature termed as a principle of equivalence, the А. Einstein has put in the basis of a general theory of relativity (theory of gravitation). It is experimentally a principle of equivalence is established with very large accuracy". Physics of a microcosm, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1980, page 244. From this quotation it is visible, that, deliberately whether or not, but there is a tangle between two "by principles of equivalence". New physics by two arms polls for a principle of equivalence of gravitational and inert mass, but categorically against "of a principle of equivalence" in sense of an indistinguishability of a gravitational field and motion of a body with acceleration. Last "principle" has received a title "of a strong principle of equivalence".

The Einstein, when speaks about equivalence of inert and gravitational mass means something another. That to legalize the principle of equivalence, he views the far-fetched problem: whether the masses in the second Newton's laws (F=ma) and in a law of gravitation are identical, i.e. whether are identical inertial and gravitational mass? If they are identical (and it really and is affirmed experimentally), the completely illegal operation follows: mass in the second Newton's laws the Einstein considers not as a constant of proportionality, and function, i.e. value dependent on acceleration of a body. Therefore, ostensibly, we can not distinguish, whether we are moves with acceleration or the intensity of a gravitational field has changed. Further - more. It is necessary to demonstrate, that all bodies moves with acceleration. For this purpose the Einstein attracts geometry of the Riemann of curved space. In such space of a body should be moves on geodetic lines, i.e. on curvilinear trajectories, so (on presentation of orthodox physics) with acceleration, though it is necessary specially to demonstrate it. And as they moves with acceleration is means that the force - universal gravitation, on an intention of the Einstein acts on them. Thus, the gravitational field is substituted by curved space which is "accounting for" a long-range action of a "gravitational" field. Thus that fact is missed from consideration, that the motion on geodetic lines in curved space is equivalent to rectilinear uniform motion in a Euclidean space, i.e. happens without acceleration. Otherwise motion in curved space generally is impossible, since it would contradict an energy conservation law.




Fig 25.1

"According to a general theory of relativity, free bodies, being in a time-space continuum of the Riemann, moves with the relevant accelerations along geodetic lines, i.e. along lines of the least curvature. Thus, the gravitation was reduced to property of a time-space continuum that has given the basis to some scientists to term GRT as the geometrical theory of gravitation. As already it was scored, the Newton could not explain transmission of gravity on space distances, could not it make and subsequent breeds of the scientists. The general theory of relativity has made searching this explanation unnecessary - gravitation not transmission of forces on distance, and property of a time-space continuum. The general theory of relativity has extended our notions about space and time, has introduced in large clearness to the theory of gravitation and has explained phenomena, which one were not stacked in the Newtonian theory. However at all its reachings it not shakes of carrying on value of a law of gravitation of the Newton. It is explained by that the general theory of relativity is complex, and to use it for daily calculations practically it is impossible". D.R. Merkin, Brief history of a classic mechanics, "Physical and Mathematical literature", М., 1994, page 134-135. As is spoken: to start on a merry note, but finish on a sad one. Really, GRT will not be utilized for practical calculations of motions of space bodies and vehicles created by the man. In this area the theory of the Newton undividedly dominates, using which one reach any given accuracy and do not score any deviations and anomalies.

One of ways of check of conclusions GRT about contortion of space - time near to massive bodies is the study of deviation of a light ray passing near to the Sun. One photo of a sidereal palate make during solar eclipse, and another in half-year of the same segment of a sidereal palate. Then the photos mate and determine visible displacement of stars. On a figure 25.1 the data received in 1922 of the Campbell and Trumpler (a figure is borrowed from the book of the V.A. Fig 25.1

Acukovsky "Logical and experimental fundamentals of a relativity theory", М., 1990, page 46).

The explanations of rather grey areas of a figure will follow below.

Agrees GRT deviation of light rays near to the Sun makes:


where - angle of visible deflection of star, G - gravitational constant, M - mass of the Sun, rs - radius of the Sun, R - distance from a light beam up to center of the Sun, c - speed of light. (Physics of space, М., 1976, page 211). The indicated authors have received on a limb of the Sun (at rs=R) value 1."720.11. The good coincidence with the theory is stipulated by large desire of the authors to confirm GRT, since the described method of check GRT can not neither confirm this theory, nor to deny it for the following reasons (that concerns and to beam deflection of light under the theory of the Newton).

1. Because of large brightness of a corona of the Sun, the stars near to its limb are not visible and it is necessary to extrapolate the data on a limb of a hyperbolic curve. As the hyperbola has here steep branch which is going around in perpetuity, and the apparent displacement have a wide scatter of values, on a limb it is easy to receive any desirable displacement of a ray.

2. Both under the theory GRT and under the theory of the Newton of a line of visible displacement of stars should transit precisely through center of the Sun, however any of them through center does not pass. Nay, the distances from lines of visible displacement of stars L up to center of the Sun have the most miscellaneous value, down to values superior 12 radiuses of the Sun (of fig. 25.2).






3. From a figure 25.1 it is visible, that the part of the images of stars displaces "where it is necessary" - from the Sun, the part of the images displaces in the counter side, and the part generally does not displace anywhere, and the majority last is in immediate proximity from the Sun. It is impossible to explain this fact from stands GRT or the theories of the Newton, therefore gravitational displacement of light beams not only is masked, but also the apparent picture is predominantly determined by other effect.

 The author agrees with an official astronomy, that the explanation of results figured on a figure by 25.1 refraction of light on clouds of plasma in a corona of the Sun (extending down to orbit of the Earth), is not convincing, since the refraction of a visible light in a corona is inappreciable.

"The phenomenon of refraction plays the relevant role in atmospheres of some planets, in particular of Jupiter. Strangely enough, but it practically is incidental for light waves in case of atmospheres of the Sun and stars. But for radio waves in range about 1 m index of refraction even of the external layers of the Sun, corona can appear very large. The radio waves of metric range passing through a corona, very strongly deviate the initial direction". O. Struve etc. Elementary astronomy. М., 1967, page 56.

Provisional arrangement and form of clouds of plasma are figured on a figure 25.1 by grey colors. It is possible to explain an apparent picture of visible deviation of a position of stars by full internal reflection of light in clouds of plasma. This effect completely greases a picture of a gravitational departure of light rays, and partially boosts visible deviation of stars, since on the average in a direction on the Sun the electron concentration in plasma is higher, than in other directions. The additive less than in 1" suffices to reject contortion of space near to the Sun. If the light beam from a star passes inside a cloud of plasma, deviations is not watched. If the light beam passes near to boundary of a cloud, where the density gradient of charged particles is boosted, the deviation of a visible position of a star in a direction of a perpendicular from a surface inside of a cloud is watched at the expense of full internal reflection. Therefore deviations in a visible position of stars in this case have the most miscellaneous directions.

"From (4) follows the phase velocity of radio waves in plasma vph>c - speed of light, that. As it is visible from the formula (4), electromagnetic waves with frequency, smaller Langmuir (<0e), in plasma to be spread can not. On the other hand, the electromagnetic waves with the greater frequency, being spread in the side of increase of an electron concentration, test full internal reflection just as light from boundary with matter possessing smaller index of refraction. These features are relevant at research of radio-waves propagation in a solar corona, interstellar gas and ionosphere". Physics of space. М., 1976, page 426.

"The physical distinction of active and quiet areas in a solar corona is, that electronic density at all altitudes of coronal condensation approximately in 3 times is higher, than at the same altitudes of a unperturbed corona. The ionized gas is focused in different structural formations (tubes, arches etc.), which one form by magnetic fields of the Sun, leaving in a corona. The fact of existence powerful of coronal beams displays, that the influence of a field has an effect up to distances in tens radiuses of the Sun". Physics of space. М., 1976, page 548.

Thus, the check GRT on deviation of light rays of stars near to the Sun is not correct.

The more perspective method represents not measurement of an angle of a gravitational aberration of a light beam, and measurement of a relative frequency change of spectral lines of a ray passing near to a massive body. More in detail to consider this problem, we shall decide a problem about deviation of a trajectory of a photon under action of an external force, directional perpendicularly trajectories of a photon.

On the second Newton's laws:




The computational scheme of impulses of a considered case is figured on a figure 25.3, where - angle of deflection. The second Newton's laws for a photon:


Let's equate (25.11) and (25.12):

mdV+Vdm=hd/C                                        (25.13).

As , that . Let's substitute in (25.13) and we shall decide a received equation:


From a figure 25.3 it is visible, that V/C=sina, at small angles Sin, therefore:    


From (25.15) it is visible, that the external force increments frequency of a photon, since the additional impulse imparts to it. From a figure 25.3: cos=m0/m, i.e. trajectory of a photon under action of perpendicular force to deploy on 900 it is impossible, and mass of a photon under action of such force grows.

The overseeing by a relative frequency change of light from a star at coating its by Sun is more usable to conduct from space, since in this case "eclipse" of the Sun can be organized on a long time. In process of approach of the solar disk the spectral lines of a star should displace in a short-wave portion of the spectrum pursuant to the theory of the Einstein:


or with the theory of the Newton:


where (-0)/ - relative increase of frequency of light, - deviation angle of light ray, M - mass of the Sun, G - gravitational constant, R - distance from center of the Sun up to a ray. The similar experiment is much more exact, since is not subject to influence of clouds of plasma, the relative frequency change is measured with a split-hair accuracy and the processing of results is more comfortable, as the experimental points will formed an alone hyperbola.

For check of gravitational red displacement, which one for the Sun makes under the theory of the Einstein and Newton identical value:


where R0 - radius of the Sun, by Sen-John from an observatory Mount Wilson the results, introduced on a figure 25.4 were received. The figure is borrowed from the book: O. Struve etc. Elementary astronomy. M., 1967, page 427.



The dotted straight line on a figure 25.4 corresponds to the formula (25.18). On an ordinate axis the red displacement of Fraunhofer lines in a spectrum of the Sun in recalculation on velocity on Doppler Effect is shown (it would be better to point directly relative frequency change). On an abscissa axis distance from center of the Sun up to its edge is put off.

On the greater part of the disk of the Sun of displacement of frequency are small and are explained by official physics by vertical flows of matter, which one compensates red displacement and only for a limb of the Sun the displacement of frequency corresponds to the theory, since for vertical flows in this case is not present Doppler component in a direction to the spectator. The reduced data, apparently, convincingly confirm the theory (only not clearly which - Einstein or Newton). Actually they reflect large problems for both theories, in particular, GRT. At the expense of contortion of space near to the Sun, the full deflection of a ray of a star apart of solar radius on GRT corresponds to the formula (25.16), and under the theory of the Newton the beam deflection should correspond to the formula (25.17). If the ray is emitted from a limb of the Sun, the relevant deviations will be twice less. On GRT: 2GM/C2R0=4.2379·10-6, under the theory of the Newton: GM/C2R0=2.1189·10-6. And it is "cyan" frequency changes of photons. By the way, it "blue" also stipulates a fall on an experimental curve apart ¾ from center. In view of a gravitational aberration of a trajectory of a photon, the experiment should give accordingly curves 1 and 2, figured on a figure by 25.5 dashed line. To remove inconsistencies, the additional red displacement on a limb of the Sun at a rate of 4.2379·10-6 for GRT and twice less for the theory of the Newton is necessary. It is possible to ensure it only with transversal effect of the Doppler for fast moving gas flows. For this purpose the velocity of flows should make 873 kms/sec for GRT and 618 kms/sec for the theory of the Newton.  The indicated velocities do not contradict the literary data on which one velocity of gas streams is peer 100-1000 kms/sec (Physics of space. М., 1976, page 55, 550), but for GRT the value of demanded velocity is too close to limiting, that is unlikely. From a figure 25.4 it is visible, that the effect of gravitational red displacement is compensates in center of the Sun by a direct effect of the Doppler all on 400 m/sec. Therefore just on this value the velocity of up flows exceeds velocity descending. On a limb of the Sun the transversal Doppler Effect does not depend on a direction of gas streams. On a figure 25.5 dot lines figure a relative frequency change in view of transversal Doppler Effect for GRT (3) and theory of the Newton (4). As it is visible, the theory of the Newton



corresponds to experimental data more.

The experimental affirming of an equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass is declared by official physics by the convincing proof of validity of views of the Einstein, though this fact has not the direct relation to conclusions GRT for two reasons: at first, it is not a corollary, and initial hypothesis GRT with the subsequent not correct gamble, secondly, this fact has not unambiguous connection with conclusions GRT, since can be explained in another way, for example, as it is made by new physics or how it was interpreted by the Newton, not making generally of any conclusions, on the strength from conspicuity of equality of these masses.

GRT contradicts both first and second Newton's laws, and energy conservation law. "Masses the creating fields of gravitation, bend a space-time. Bodies, which one moves in this curved space - time, and in this case moves on the same geodetic lines, irrespective of mass or structure of a body. The spectator perceives this motion as motion on curved trajectories in three-dimensional space with variable velocity. But from the very beginning in the theory of the Einstein is included, that a bending of trajectories, law of an alteration of speed are properties of space - time, properties geodetic in this space - time, so, the acceleration of any bodies should be identical, signifies, ponderable mass mw should equal inert mi so that the acceleration was identical all bodies". I.D. Novikov, Evolution universe, "Science", М., 1983, page 78-79.

On the Einstein all bodies moves in curved space, therefore, not rectilinearly, and with acceleration, therefore, under action of force. Is asked, whence they scoop energy for such motion - from curved space? The general theory of relativity allots space and time with physical characteristics (for example, the space-time is bent). But to speak about space there is a sense only then, when we have the bodies, arranged in it, and to speak about time it is be worth-while only then, when there are any changes. The special theory of relativity considers that absolute space is not present, and the general theory of relativity as a matter of fact accepts a concept of absolute curved space - time. Where of the logic? If a bending relatively, the masses of bodies calling this bending are relative also but it already full nonsense, since mass of a body is absolute also it easily to measure. "In a mechanics of the Newton there was a absolute space and in it the bodies were moves. The special theory of relativity has shown (? - V.K.), that absolute space is not present, there is no absolute motion and for definition of motion it is necessary to enter a reference system. Only after the indicating of a reference system it is be worth-while to speak, as in relation to it moves of a body". Ibidem, page 80.

In curved space - time the photons too should be moves on geodetic lines, i.e. for the spectator the Universe should be introduced not uniformly by filled matter, as it is visible directly, and from the majority of areas light will not reach at all Earth while from some areas it is capable only to the Earth and to be moves. Therefore spectator of the Universe of the Einstein should see a pair of light spots on a background of a remaining completely black palate. Indirectly it is possible to judge an inaccuracy GRT on the fact, that perennial attempts of the Einstein to explain electrostatic interaction by space-time geometry (as all equations of this interaction are similar to a gravitational interaction) have suffered full failure. "By showing, that the gravitation can be viewed as geometrical property of space - time, bound with its curvature (in GRT and remained vague: where the hen, and where an egg - that is primary, curved space calling gravitation or mass calling a bending of space - V.K.), he attempted to find it other geometrical characteristic, which one could correspond to electric charge. Thus, in the searchings of way of unification of these two forces of the nature the Einstein was grounded on space-time geometry". Fundamental structure of a matter, "World", М., 1984, page 174-175.

The lag time of radio signal at radiolocation of Venus from time before and after the moment of a top conjunction (Venus behind the Sun) was measured with the purpose of check "deceleration of a course of time" in a gravitational field of the Sun. A solid curve under the theory of the Einstein. But till him the theories the speed of light is a stationary value, from what the reference systems it did not measure. Apparently, that this velocity can decrease only at a pass of light (in this case of radio waves) in some medium, what the clouds of plasma, ejecting Sun is. It is possible to explain observations if to admit a mean factor of a refractive of clouds of plasma from the Sun all of n=1.000000125. The lag corresponds to "increase" of distance at 30 kms. It is known, that the radio waves are refracted in clouds of plasma going from the Sun. From simple geometrical reasons follows, that the refractive of a radio beam on direct and return path to a surface of Venus urges radio signal to pass superfluous not 30 kms, and almost 8000 kms, if it are refracted on a limb of the Sun. If the refractive happens in a corona of the Sun or further away, that, "superfluous" distance decreases. In these conditions "coincidence" of experiment with the theory of the Einstein does not confirm, and disclaims it. It is better to keep track of by a frequency change of radio signal, which one under the theory of the Einstein should decrease in a gravitational field of the Sun because of "deceleration of a course of time" irrespective of, to Venus or back radio signal is gone. "Blue" it at motion to the Sun and "reddening" at motion to Venus is completely compensates on return path to the Earth.

The notions SRT concerning rate of propagation of a gravitational field are contradictory. On the one hand, with speed of light the changes of a gravitational field are spread (gravity waves, which one, despite all reasonable efforts only, and have not found out, assigning them very small energy, though the gravitational interaction in space scales is great). On the other hand, GRT considers the Universe indefinitely extended in time and space, and the gravitational field except for as indefinitely extended generally is difficult to itself for presenting. Therefore is received, that the gravitational field in GRT, as well as in the theory of the Newton, is spread with indefinitely by a high speed. "In the theory of the Einstein the change of a gravitational field (gravity waves) is spread with terminal velocity only. Itself a quasi-static gravitational field of masses (that field, which one in case of the Newton gives the law of back squares) in the theory of the Einstein exists from the very beginning, is not spread anywhere and extends unrestrictedly (as for the Newton)". I.D. Novikov, Evolution of the Universe, "Science", М., 1983, page 94. In formal - mathematical equations we are free to insert any starting conditions, but the common sense speaks that in the infinite Universe, that a field it took, the indefinitely high speed of its propagation is indispensable.

The Einstein in the general theory of relativity (GRT) all parameters of the second Newton's laws considers variable. 

The logic GRT is those:

1. Space is curved.

2. The body in this space is moves on geodetic lines. As the body is gone not rectilinearly, signifies, it is gone with acceleration, i.e. the force of a gravitation acts on it.

3. The motion of a body with acceleration is equivalent to increase of intensity of a gravitational field.

4. To close this faulty logic circle, it is necessary to admit, that the reason of a bending of space is the presence in it of gravitational charges (masses).

If to accept on a faith these statements, we at once shall meet with a violation of law of preservation of energy because of a positive back coupling of listed points. Mass of all bodies owes in this case spontaneously and unrestrictedly be incremented or to decrease, since any body, bending space around of itself, will be moves accelerated at growing rate, that will cause to increase of its mass and even greater bending of space. It is necessary to a body to decrease speed of the motion and here its acceleration will be diminished, that will cause at the end to decreasing a bending of space and mass.

Here it is necessary to point for one defect in the logic GRT. Reasoning about motion of bodies on geodetic lines in curve space, at which one they have a centripetal acceleration, since moves is curvilinear, we not advertise of that circumstance, that these reasoning concern to the spectator located in Euclidean ("direct") space. If we shall be in that space, as the moving body, for us it will be moves "rectilinearly" without a centripetal acceleration. And if from "curve" the spaces to watch motion of a body in a Eucledean space, we again shall come to an error conclusion, that it is gone curvilinearly and has a centripetal acceleration with all outflow conclusions GRT.

Thus, all conclusions SRT can be received from the opposite backgrounds: absence of inertial reference systems, absolute motion, the absolute speeds of light, i.e. that relativity, are termed as which one the special and general theory of the Einstein does not exist. The equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass is a not initial hypothesis (as in the theory of the Einstein), and corollary of a constitution of elementary particles of new physics. The experimental facts uniquely verifying the theory of a gravitation of the Einstein miss. Therefore in the present moment we can not confirm validity SRT and GRT.

GRT has arisen on the basis SRT, therefore refusal from SRT simultaneously is refusal and from GRT.

To not tire any more reader, on it we shall finish to a critic GRT, though it would be possible to write in this occasion the whole book. It is important to us now to understand, that this theory internally is contradictory. Instead of critic, it is much more convincing to give the constitutive alternate theory, which one explains all paradoxes, inconsistencies, experimental and observation facts. Such theory will be given in the chapter dedicated problems of a cosmology. There it is necessary still repeatedly to recall GRT.

Comments of the author to chapter 25. Paradoxes of distorting of space - time.

The main idea of a general relativity theory is, that any body distorts around of itself a space-time, that, as the Einstein asserts, is the cause of a gravitation. To agree an special relativity theory, the Einstein has accepted, that the distorting of space - time is diffused with speed of light.

These notions result in listed under paradoxes, which one demonstrate, that the basic idea of a general relativity theory  is error.

1. Only at propagation of distorting of space - time with indefinitely by a high speed center of distorting (the center of a gravitation) will coincide a center of mass. At any other terminal velocity of propagation of distorting of space - time this distorting will lag a little most driving body, its motion therefore will become effective to brake, since the gravitation of a body is biased from the  body in the party inverse to motion a little. Therefore motion of any space bodies is impossible.

2. The solar system is as a whole gone on galactic orbit with speed of 250 kms / sec, therefore all distortings of spaces - times called by the members of a solar System lag in the party inverse to motion in a galaxy. It results that the planets which have appeared at the front of the Sun come nearer to the Sun, and appeared behind - leave from the Sun. In outcome the eccentricity of orbits is augmented, and the semi-major axis of orbits are marshaled in one direction - in a direction motions of a system in a galaxy. Actually, all orbits of planets are step-by-step turned in the party of orbital motion with miscellaneous speed, bound with inertia of a planet, specially large for a Mercury, therefore semimajor axes of elliptical orbits are arranged as a whole chaotically.

3. At distorting space - time there are no physical causes for anisotropic distorting in miscellaneous directions. Therefore directions of planes of orbits of the members of a solar System should be equiprobable in space, however Solar System practically flat.


25.1. About space and time


Space and time the not physical objects, therefore can not have any properties, including dimensional. Space are interspaces between bodies, and time - interspaces between events. Dimensional have only physical objects, for example string is one-dimensional, the plane is two-dimensional, and the orb is three-dimensional. The concept of space arises for a label of an interspace between objects and in absence those it is not make sense. The concept of time is similar arises for a label of an interspace between events and in absence of events too it is not make sense.

If the interspaces between bodies are reduced, it is equivalent to compression of a matter, and if are augmented, it uncompression of a matter. Naturally, that the term «compression» is not equivalent to the term «density». In itself it nor is physical object and has not any properties. As compression of a matter, and it uncompression can not be indefinitely large, though this and cannot assign a numerical characteristic. It is possible on another to formulate: space is a rest of a matter. If the interspaces between events are reduced, it is equivalent speed up of events, and if are augmented, it is equivalent to deboosting of events. Naturally, that the term «speed up» or «deboosting» is not equivalent to the terms «speed» or «acceleration». Naturally also, that speed up or deboosting of events can not be indefinitely large, though this cannot assign a numerical characteristic. It is possible on another to formulate: the time is a motion of a matter.

If to view properties, for example, concrete depending on numerous parameters at its manufacturing, it is possible to enter conditional mathematical multidimensional space of these parameters, in which one the strength of concrete will vary in all measurements of this space. But it is necessary to recognize, that the introduction of such space is an only mathematical method, in a reality it does not exist.

Point zero-dimensional, two points create one-dimensional space three points creates two-dimensional space. Four points generally create three-dimensional space. The further increase of number of points ad infinitum does not add dimensional. As any actual physical object can be presented consisting from infinite number of points, any physical object is always three-dimensional. Mathematical reflection of three-dimensional of physical objects is the Cartesian coordinates, where all three axes have identical dimensionality of distance. The time is one-dimensional and it is impossible to itself to present something in coordinate system, where all three axes or even two axes have identical dimensionality of time. In essence differ from objects processes, which one is always many-dimensional, as the set of the factors influences their passing. Each of these factors can be presented as independent coordinate; therefore conditional mathematical "space" of any process is many-dimensional. Any contortion of geometrical space or space of process mathematically is equivalent to a bending of coordinate axes, which one on definition are rectilinear. On this basis consideration of multi-dimensional space and its contortion is nonsense both mockeries at physical and mathematical sense. 

Let's suspect that the orthodox notions about a capability of contortion of space and time are correct. At any contortion there are local zones of stretching and squeezing. If some body is moves in a zone of squeezed time or squeezed space, it passes a particular section for more short time or for that the time passes lengthier way. It is equivalent to increase of velocity of a body or its kinetic energy, which one has arisen from anything. The similar reasoning for a segment of spread space or time result in a conclusion that the energy of a body without leaving a trace fades. Thus, the orthodox notions about properties of space and time do not correspond to a scientific level since contradict an energy conservation law.


25.2. Four-dimensional space-time is a silly fabrication


Space on sensible speculation is three-dimensional, and the time is one-dimensional. The orthodoxes have managed to superpose these concepts as monster: a space-time. Therefore it is necessary to be disassembled, what represents this monster.

The four-measurement object cannot be presented by human imagination and it is exact outcome of evolution our brain reflecting only an objective reality. However, it is possible to take advantage of  that all three orthogonal axes of space are equivalent and to not take into consideration any of them. Then it is possible to esteem flat space with a time axis, perpendicular this plane. Now we shall take any point of space-time. Apparently, that through this point it is possible to pass uncountable set of planes and the time axis will be perpendicular any of these planes. From here follows, that the time axis anywhere is not particularly directed, i.e. the time is not a vector quantity and in four-measurement space-time it does not exist. But the time is not also scalar value, since the statement is senseless, that in the given point of space-time quantity of time can be more or less. Thus, the time has not quantitative and qualitative characteristics (value and direction), intrinsic to any physical object. Therefore to meter a Newtonian time we can not and compelled to limit only by measurement of interspaces between events. Here orthodoxes could object, that on their notions before Bing Bang of time did not exist. My counter-evidence is, that the Universe exists eternally in time, therefore «beginning» or «end» has not. If we divided of the Siamese twin - space-time in twain, then it is possible to reason separately on space. In any arbitrary point of space it nor has directions and values. Therefore we are compelled to limit only by measurement of interspaces between bodies. Process of measurement of space and time is absolutely identical. We affix a rigid straight line a straightedge between two points of space or between two events and we read out on a uniform scale interspaces in arbitrary units of time or spacing interval. If the straightedge will be rubber or curve (such straightedges the orthodoxes frequently use), our measurements and conclusions from them will be always erratic.

Around of space and time the uncountable army of the theorists is feed. Everyone attempts as much as possible to leave of tracks in these areas to justify the salary. Therefore and henceforth there will be more and more absurd theories on this subject. On inconsistencies, arising at it, the attentions do not раy. For example, Stephen W. Hawking all life is engaged in black holes. Naturally, that they do not remain in initial interpretation, and Hawking permanently devises all their new properties. Thus he permanently refers to a relativity theory, but under this theory the gravitation is conditioned by exchange of gravitons, which one can not move with superlight speed. This fact is ignored, and recently even «vaporization» of black holes is professed at the expense of heat radiation and radiation of particles, that contradicts the  concept «of a black hole». They for him that of a singularity with the zero size and infinite density, are suddenly resulted extensive reasoning on a surface of a black hole. The poor spirit of a Newton is shocked from such methodology of science. Most ridiculous that anybody has not resulted the yet not convincing evidences of existence of black holes, not on a paper, and in the nature. I want to write the separate article with criticism of the book Stephen W. Hawking «A Brief History of Time From the Big Bang to Black Holes» after I shall untangle a skein of inconsistencies in this book.