The parameters even and rectilinear motion of free bodies can not be determined from any reference system; therefore official physics professes relativity. New physics considers that all free bodies’ moves on a screw line. This motion is absolute also their parameter easily to determine from any reference system, therefore principle of relativity is necessary for exchanging by a principle of absolute motion. Thus it is easy to receive all formulas received in frameworks SRT.
Earlier we came to a conclusion, that space is container of things and the proofs of its contortion cannot be recognized substantial. Time - is container of events and we have shown, that the attempts of explanation of some phenomena by change in course of time also are unfounded. Thus, both general, and special Einstein's relativity theory should be exchanged simpler and more adequate to the test data by neoclassical notions. "A theory of relativity, or the relativistic theory, was created by the Albert Einstein in 1905. The theory of relativity termed also as an private or special theory of relativity, includes the theory of space - time, mechanics of fast motions with velocities, close to speed of light, electrodynamics and optics of moving mediums. The general theory of relativity representing the theory of gravitation was created by the А. Einstein in 1916". N.I. Kariakin etc., Brief manual on physics, "Higher School", М., 1962, page 300.
Before to analyze SRT, it is necessary to be disassembled with a principle of relativity of the Galilean. "The experiment displays, that in all inertial moving reference systems all mechanical phenomena flow past equally. This position has a title principle of relativity of the Galilean, or relativity of a mechanics. It can be formulated differently: by any mechanical experiment it is impossible to determine, whether there is a system in inertial motion or rest. Both formulations are equivalent". Ibidem, page 300. From a point of view of new physics, considered in this book, the relativity of motions does not exist also it is necessary to exchange by a principle absolute of motion, though the official science considers it as greatest nonsense. "The mechanical motion of a body relatively, is a situation means, that about motion of a body, its movement in space it is possible to speak only in the event that is indicated, in relation to what body there is a motion, relatively what body there is a movement. The concept "absolute motion of a body" as motion of a body in relation to "absolute" to space of the Newton is empty". Ibidem, page 300.
As absolute rest does not exist, the talk is possible for a message only about moving bodies. All free bodies motion on a screw line, therefore has not value, whether we sit on an electron or on a space body and we attempt to determine its absolute speed (not in relation to something, as it is not paradoxical). It can be determined as on external reference points, determining radius of a screw trajectory, and sitting inside the chamber, isolated from an external world. In the latter case all parameters of a body, bound with its mass (density, acceleration under activity of particular force etc.) uniquely determinates by absolute speed of this body pursuant to the formula of relativistic increase of mass of a body, which one we have received outside of notions SRT. If we to this formula shall apply a relativity of moving speed, we shall come to a conclusion, that mass of a body will be simultaneous to have any values, i.e. will become uncertain, that contradicts both experiment and common sense. Other problem that at small absolute speed of motion relativistic increase of mass is not enough, that it is very difficult for determining experimentally. The difficulty is aggravated also by that circumstance, that the growth of mass is identical to all bodies, ambient the experimenter and it is necessary to have near at hand precise "standard" values, for example, some force.
The transformation of coordinates of the Galilean are possible are to consider, as a coordinates definition of the same point of space absolutely fixed and moving with absolute speed by v reference systems. From these transformations is received, that the sizes of a moving body do not vary, the time is absolute also its course does not vary in any reference systems, therefore, and the interval between two events is invariant (is constant) concerning transformations of the Galilean. The equations of motion of the Newton also save the kind in any inertial system. On the ground that the Maxwell equations for an electromagnetic wave change the kind at transition from fixed to a moving reference system, official physics considers, that the optical and electrodynamics phenomena do not obey to a relativity of the Galilean. "As the Maxwell equations change the kind at transition from a fixed system to moving, it means, that the optical and electrodynamics phenomena in moving and fixed reference systems should flow past variously". N.I. Kariakin etc., Brief manual on physics, "Higher School", М., 1962, page 301. That these phenomena depend on absolute speed of motion is shown below in this chapter with all absolutism, but Maxwell equations here at all at what, since they describe wave process, and light are particles.
Thus, the special theory of relativity has appeared as result of conviction in validity of the theory of the Maxwell. Here it is necessary to pay attention to a large deficiency of a logic system of science as a whole. The building of science is under construction not so much widthway, how many in an altitude: the new theories occur on the basis of existing, on their basis the new theories are under construction etc. As a whole, the logic system of science represents a pyramid, standing on the sharp end. Naturally, that in a direction up probability of a truth of the theories sharply drops since is product of probability of all base theories, starting from the foundation. It is necessary to move any rock in the basis as all system of the theories based on this foundation, falls and it is necessary all to construct anew. The history of science serves convincing affirming it.
In connection with that to the supporters wave essence of light it was introduced by wave process, medium was necessary, in which one this process is implemented. So there was a hypothesis of the ether which has appeared very tenacious of life (and to this day), in spite of the fact that the physical characteristics of an ether should be guessed completely improbable from a point of view of sensible physical sense. And after was found out, that light represents transversal vibrations and at all it is necessary to consider an ether as a solid body, since only in it such oscillations are possible. "For explanation of the nature of light in XVII the hypothesis of mechanical ether was entered. An ether - everywhere penetrate world medium possessing in very small density (that to not hinder to motion of bodies - V.K.) and largest resilience Е (by very strong internal interaction - V.K.), so Е=с2=9×1020 cm2/sec2. Light represents elastic vibrations in ether like sound oscillations in air". Ibidem, page 301. After creation by the Maxwell of the theory of light the mechanical ether was "is exchanged” electromagnetic and about today explicitly and clandestinely scientists attempt to squeeze out all from this idea instead of saying goodbye to it for ever. New physics makes concept of ether completely redundant. "Light represents transversal wave motion. It outflows from the theory of the Maxwell and from numerous experimental data, in particular from experiments with polarized light. From here follows, that the ether is a solid body. The question is that the transverse waves are connected to shift deformations and can arise only in solid bodies which are capable to resist shifting. Just for this reason of sound waves spread in air, are longitudinal. Moreover, the ether should be an elastic solid body. The rate of propagation of mechanical waves in different materials depends on their elastic constants. Last considerably it is more for steel, than for air. Very much high speed of light speaks that the ether should have a very large shear modulus. It is very difficult to imagine, that all space is completed by this elastic solid body and that all material subjects pass through it without any resistance". M.R. Wehr, J.A. Richards, Physics of the atom, Moscow, 1961, page 90-91.
Numerous attempts to reduce in one theory all optical phenomena have failed. "... To explain different optical phenomena from a unified point of view within the framework of classic physics it is impossible if not to attract a contraction hypothesis of the Lorentz" (reduction of the sizes of bodies in a direction of their motion - V.K.). N.I. Kariakin etc., Brief manual on physics, "Higher School", М., 1962, page 305. It concerns also SRT, that will be visible from further. At the same time, the principle absoluteness of motion of new physics is natural and is logical explains all without elimination optical phenomena, not resorting to concept of an ether of its any form.
The special Einstein's relativity theory, as is known, is founded on two postulates: 1. Any phenomena in all inertial moving reference systems flow past equally. 2. The speed of light in vacuum does not depend on velocity of a source, in all inertial systems is identical, i.e. the speed of light does not depend and on motion of the spectator.
The conclusions SRT contradict its initial postulates about equality of all inertial reference systems and independence of speed of light of motion of a source and spectator. On the second postulate is received, that the speed of light is absolute and measurement it in miscellaneous inertial reference systems allows to determine absolute speed of a given system, since the flow of time in this system depends on velocity of its motion, therefore inertial reference systems are unequal. The more moving speed of a system, the slower flows in it time and that the high speed of light will be received by the experimenter in this system. As the longitudinal sizes of bodies till SRT are reduced, and transversal is not present, on their ratio it is possible to determine moving speed of a system. The indicating on that the effects of a theory of relativity are exhibited only at observation from a "fixed" system concerning "moving" does not correspond to Lorentz transformation laws, on which one decreasing of coordinate and deceleration of time in a moving system take place also comparatively fixed.
As is known, SRT are founded on transformation of coordinates of the Lorentz and results of a Michelson experiment. The Lorentz, as against the Einstein, considered the transformation of coordinates not having of physical sense, viewing them only as is clean the mathematical manipulation simplifying an equations. The main formal - mathematical idea of these transformations is, that the coordinates and time in a moving and "fixed" reference system, on the one hand, should leave rectilinear mechanical motion rectilinear, and with another - that the Maxwell equations of a pass of light did not change the kind at transition from one reference system in another. In transformations of the Galilean this equation changes the kind. It is clear, that as against transformations of the Galilean, the Lorentz transformation laws will give change in course of time in a moving reference system, resizing of moving bodies and all that are by "merit" SRT.
From a point of view of new physics, the theory of the Maxwell is not known to what concerns. Be for the Maxwell the modern data about corpuscular properties of light, is interquartile, he has doubted of applicability of the theory to propagation of light quantums. Nevertheless, SRT in the theory of the Maxwell and Lorentz transformation laws do not doubt.
The equation for energy of a particle E=p2/2m=mV2/2 does not save the form at Lorentz transformation laws, i.e. does not obey SRT. That concerns and to a Schrodinger equation, this ratio enters in which one. Therefore it is necessary to reject or Schrodinger equation, by discarding SRT and GRT or, by accepting on a faith SRT and GRT, to refuse a Schrodinger equation. The Dirac attempted to remove this inconsistency, but his equation has restricted applying and physical sense, i.e. as a matter of fact does not decide the indicated problem.
In connection with new notions about motion of free bodies, the first postulate is not represented any more so apparent. Any inertial system has only to it proper parameters of screw motion, and the problem of distinguishing of such systems passes from category principled in category only technical. On the other hand, is apparent (and is fixed establish), that elementary particles, for example, the pions, have a miscellaneous lifetime in velocity function of their motion. These example displays, that two inertial reference systems, bound with such pions are unequal also internal processes in them flow past variously, even from a point of view SRT. First the pion with smaller absolute speed of motion will decay, from what reference systems we it did not watch.
The statement about that measured speed of light does not depend on motion of the spectator contradicts experimentally established Doppler Effect in optics. Apparently, that being moves towards to a light ray to change its any parameters we can not, therefore, if the velocity of the spectator will sum up with speed of light, the Doppler effect will be, and if result of a velocity addition will be value, the equal speed of light - that Doppler effect will miss. Besides if the measured speed of light does not depend on motion of the spectator, it as a matter of fact means, that light "knows" about movements of the spectator and changes velocity pursuant to it that is represented improbable. As to the first part of the second postulate, with it is necessary to agree, meaning not relative, and the absolute speed of light, that is confirmed by observations by binary stars and straight lines experiments.
"In astrophysics the binary stars are known. Two stars are gyrated around of their center of masses. If to accept "a ballistic hypothesis" of Ritz (speed of light sums up with velocity of a source - V.K.), light from stars 1 and 2 will go with miscellaneous velocities. When light will reach the Earth, we shall see stars in a position A and В. But to this moment of a star will take other position. When the star 1 will be in a position A', light from it will go to the Earth with the greater velocity and can reach earlier, than it will come from it, when it was in a position А. It means that we can simultaneously see that two, four stars any periodicity apparent motion of stars should not have. At the same time observation displays, that the apparent motion of binary stars has stringent periodicity and the "false" stars miss. It means that the ballistic hypothesis is untrue". N.I. Kariakin etc., Brief manual on physics, "Higher School", М., 1962, page 305.
"In 1963 the check of this postulate in laboratory experiments with fast moving sources g-radiation was carried out. Was shown, that in error limits of experiments (~10%) the rate of propagation g-radiation does not depend on moving speed of its source". B.M. Javorsky, A.A. Detlaph, Course of physics, v.3, "Higher School", М., 1967, page 186. Unfortunately, even the ratty slice of matter cannot be speed up to velocities compared to speed of light, therefore in laboratory conditions it is impossible directly to confirm an inaccuracy of the second half of second postulate, though the stellar aberration confirms, that the measured speed of light depends on motion of the spectator.
The independence of speed of light in vacuum from motion of a source is to straight line a corollary of enunciated above notions about a gravidynamic field of particles. At the same time, the statement about independence of speed of light in vacuum from motion of a source and full mutual independence of speed of light and motion of the spectator, that expresses in vectorial addition of speed of light and spectator (the phenomenon of a stellar aberration) automatically means absolute speed of light. And also denying of a relativity of any phenomena (including mechanical and optical). As there is a difference, whether the light source is gone (radiates in all sides photons with velocity C, but with miscellaneous energy) or we concerning a source, this corollary that the relativity does not exist. It is known, that the validity W=mC2, instead of W=mC2 automatically displays, that an equation W=mC2+K at anyone of K0 (we have shown, that it correctly) is not invariant concerning Lorentz transformation laws, i.e. does not obey to the first postulate of a theory of relativity. Therefore in any inertial isolated system there is a capability to determine a direction and absolute speed of its motion. As it to make, was already said and will be said still.
Ritz - the author of a ballistic hypothesis first has doubted of validity of the second postulate of the Einstein, since at its validity irrespective of selection of a reference system the light perturbation simultaneously which has arisen in a mobile and "fixed" system at concurrence of a beginning of their coordinates to the instant t should reach quite certain points of space, which one simultaneously are on two different orbs, that is dispossessed of physical sense. Here how orthodox physics "demonstrates" an inconsistency of transformations of the Galilean grounded on notion about absoluteness of time (N.I. Kariakin etc., Brief manual on physics, "Higher School", М.,
"Postulates of the Einstein and the transformations of the Galilean incompatible. Really, we shall consider in unison three situations:
а) principle of relativity of the Einstein (first postulate);
b) law of persistence of speed of light (second postulate);
c) absoluteness of time t’=t.
Let's consider two reference systems: fixed (conditionally) OXYZt and moving (conditionally) O’X’Y’Z’t’ relatively fixed with velocity v. Direction of the relevant axes coincided. In that moment, when the beginnings of coordinates О and О’ coincide, in a point О and О’ there is a light flash. If this moment to accept for a beginning of timing, then on the one hand position of a wave surface in an instant t will be described by an equation of an orb of radius ct: x2+y2+z2=(ct)2 with center in a point О, on the other hand, wave surface will be described by an equation of an orb x’2+y’2+z’2=(ct’)2 with center in a point О’. Thus, in the same instant t=t’ the wave surface reaches different points of space (see figure), that is dispossessed of any sense. Actually wave surface one. To leave from an inconsistency, it is necessary to discard one of three statements. But "a" and "b" are experimental facts, whereas "c" - statement grounded on observation of sluggish mechanical processes. The experience results in necessity to discard concept absolute, independent from motion, time". Despite of an apparent cogency it "proof", apparently, that it contradicts a postulate "b" about persistence of speed of light. The flash in О’ pursuant to this postulate will not move together with a moving system, and remain in a system О, since the speed of light does not sums up with velocity of a light source. Therefore time does not depend on motion speed of a system and it absolutely. Reference "a" and "b" to the experimental facts, and "c" - to the "error" statement grounded on observation of sluggish processes without adducing any proof. With the same basis the statement "a" is possible to view, as result of insufficiency of our knowledge on the moment of becoming SRT. (Einstein, for example, could not know about relict radiation). The statement "b" is tested experimentally only concerning independence of speed of light of motion of a source, but not of the spectator (the Michelson experiment is easily explained by new physics from a classic addition velocity of light and spectator), and the statement "c" is affirmed by all course of development of science. The above-stated reasoning can be illustrated by such analogy: the object, moving in air, creates a sound wave spread uniformly in all sides with velocity, defined properties of medium and not dependent from velocity of the spectator and velocity of a source. Measured velocity of the spectator and sound sums up under the classic laws. The moving light source radiates in all sides photons, the velocity which one is determined not by properties of medium, and formula of relativistic increase of a gravitational charge, therefore can not exceed speed of light. Naturally, that the velocity of photons in such case nor depends neither on velocity of a source, nor from velocity of the spectator, though the measured velocity will be result of classic addition of speed of light and velocity of the spectator. In enunciated "proof" the authors yourself sums up speed of light with motion speed of a system О’.
Here will pertinent result the refined proof of an inaccuracy of Lorentz transformation laws given A.I. Kostin in the collection of transactions of the members of club "International intellectual initiative", М., 1996, page 14-16: "the Lorentz viewed two inertial reference system (IRS) К and К'. IRS К - is immobile, and IRS К’ - is gone rather first with velocity v in a direction of coordinate axes O-X and O’-X’, which one lie on one straight line.
At the moment of coincidence and other axes of rectangular coordinates IRS К and IRS К’, from a common beginning of coordinates the light signal along axes O-X and O’-X’ is sent, which one in both systems is gone up to a certain point lying on the axis O-X, i.e. in IRS К. On it the time in IRS K equal t, and in IRS К’ equal t’ is expended.
Further Lorentz injects two equations linking calculating value of both systems:
by demonstrating thus identity of a factor in both equations.
With the purpose of definition of a factor , the Lorentz decides a particular example, substituting in equations (1) and (2) values of their parameters relevant to the moment of incoming of a light signal in a given point on the axis O-X. In opinion of the Lorentz, the values of these parameters are peer: x=ct, x’=ct’, where c - speed of light in vacuum.
After substitution of these values in equations (1) and (2) and their joint solutions, the Lorentz has received following value:
speaking about that at increase of relative velocity of motion of a body its size measured from another IRS, decreases.
Deciding then in unison equations (1), (2) and (3), the Lorentz has received the formula linking times in both systems:
speaking about that in own IRS the time flows faster.
According to our opinion, with it is impossible to agree because in a given conclusion it be necessary to give in a system К’ more precise definition of an abscissa of a given point in which one the trajectory of a light signal is finished. If in the initial moment the beginning of an abscissa coincided with point of origin of both systems, to the moment of coming of a light signal in final point, the beginning of an abscissa has moved in the side of this point on distance equal vt’, as the a result of which indicated abscissa has decreased on this value:
If this value of an abscissa to substitute in an equation (1) and (2), as a result of their joint solution will appear, that:
Therefore, any shortening of moving subjects does not happen.
In view of new value the joint solution of equations (1) and (2) gives following result:
Or else, any elongation of time in another's IRS does not happen".
On a figure 24.1.1а the light source S is figured, moving with in absolute speed V. We will be interested with light which is radiated in the direction A, component with V some angles . On a figure 24.1.1b the computational scheme of a considered case is figured, where P0 - impulse of a photon of a fixed source, PV - impulse of a photon "moving" with velocity V. P - impulse of a photon in a given direction of a moving source.
From a figure 24.1.1b:
, , and (24.1.2),
let's substitute (24.1.2) in (24.1.1) and after some transformations we shall receive:
The speed of light from a source, moving in vacuum, in miscellaneous directions will be identical and is peer to velocity from a fixed source C, and the radiated frequency (Doppler effect) will be determined by the formula (24.1.3). From it, in particular, it is visible, that at =/2 (transversal Doppler effect):
that coincides known expression of the theory of the Einstein for transversal Doppler effect. "...From the formula (received from a hypothesis about existence of an ether - V.K.) follows, that at motion of a source in relation to the spectator in a direction, perpendicular to an observer-target line (=/2), the Doppler effect should miss: =0. The theory of relativity results in diverse conclusion - at =/2 the so-called transversal Doppler effect should be watched:
This effect is only relativistic. It is stipulated by deceleration of a course of time in a moving reference system. ...The experimental check of existence of transversal Doppler Effect is connected to large difficulties. For the first time such experiment was carried out in 1938 American physicists by G. Aivs and D. Stiluall. The results of experiments of Aivs and Stiluall were completely agreed the relativistic theory of Doppler Effect and by that were by one more experimental affirming of validity of a special theory of relativity". B.M. Javorsky, A.A. Detlaph, Course of physics, v.3, "Higher School", М., 1967, page 204.
From (24.1.4) at =0 (we receive radiation from a source, moving to us,), from (24.1.3): , at V=C, , i.e. in this case we perceive doubled frequency. At = (we receive radiation from a source, moving from us,), from (24.1.3): , at V=C, = 0, i.e. in this case of light source we simply shall not see because of an indefinitely large wavelength of radiation.
Now it is possible to show, that the astronomers insecurely counts up velocities of remote objects of the Universe, using the law of Habble. The law of the E. Habble note as follows ("Physics of space", Soviet encyclopedia, М., 1976, page 118): (1), where z - relative frequency change of a spectral line, 0 - laboratory frequency of a line, - apparent frequency of a line of a remote galaxy, C - speed of light, Н - constant of Habble, r - distance up to a remote galaxy. From (24.1.3) at =(the galaxies are deleted from us) it is possible to record: (2). Substituting (2) in (1), we shall discover: (3). If C>>V, that V=H×r. For some quasars z2, i.e. V/(C-V)=2, whence V=2/3C, instead of 2C, as would be received for an orthodox astronomy. At V=C, z = . Therefore, ad-hoc it should use a special theory of relativity. Apparently, that new physics gives more exact calculation of distances up to remote objects of the Universe not attracting a theory of relativity, and the earlier received data should be re-counted.
Thus, the experimentally affirmed formula (24.1.4) can be received not resorting to notions about deceleration time in moving bodies, the source is simple releases a photon with smaller energy, that it has got to the spectator and the spectator is capable to perceive only such photon.
Comments of the author to chapter 24.1:
1. End «of dark energy»
On a figure 1 the relation of a relative frequency change of a spectrum line (1) is shown (pursuant to the law Habble ) from ratio V/C of a galaxy, leaving from us. In chapter 24.1 the expression for Z: (2) is obtained. By substituting (2) in (1), we shall receive: (3). Modern engineering allows to receive spectrum lines for z = 2 and above. Thus the speed of moving away of a galaxy on (3) will be more than 2/3 C. Scientists make a grandiose error, being grounded on the formula (1). On its the more frequency change of a spectrum line, the further from us the galaxy and more its speed of moving away is arranged. Therefore there is a principled error: the Universe extends with acceleration. In similar cases the imagination is uncontrollable. Recall «a gravitation of vacuum» of the Einstein, he has refused which one, invent «dark energy» and other crazy ideas. From a figure 1 it is visible, that at z > 2 value z very much are augmented from increase V/C, aiming to sharply perpetuity, therefore z is not directly proportional to spacing interval up to a galaxy and to bind it to the law Habble it is impossible. The scientists persistently insist on the fallacies up to the death, it is them salvages from an infarct, if they were recognized, that life have spent all for nothing.
Only absolutely fixed spectator perceives light relevant to the formula (24.1.3), i.e.:
From a figure 24.2.1:
Allowing, that: (24.2.3)
and by substituting in (24.2.2), we shall discover:
At: =0, C*=C+V,
At: =/2, , . (transversal Doppler effect for the spectator).
At: =, C*=C-V, .
Source it seems to the moving spectator arranged in a direction C*(S’), displaced from true in the side of motion of the spectator.
In this case spectator will measure speed of light from a source pursuant to the formula (24.2.2). The frequency of received radiation will be received after substitution (24.2.1) in (24.2.4):
Let's consider most relevant in practice a case, when the source and spectator move with identical velocity in one side, i.e. distance between them does not vary.
If the source is arranged ahead of the spectator on a course of motion (=,=0), the formula (24.3.1) gives the same result (24.3.2) for frequency of light.
Case, when a source and spectator are arranged on a line, to perpendicular their absolute motion is figured on a figure 24.3.1. It is easy to see, that to the spectator moving together with a source, it seems (S') just there, where in the given moment is actually, though the photons go to the spectator from a position S of a source. Thus the spectator will see strictly perpendicular motion of photons to a direction of absolute motion V (=/2), and the source should radiate a photon, which one will get to the spectator on the angle </2, (+=/2).
From a figure 24.3.1 it is possible to find, that sin=V/C, i.e. the angle is very small (for earth conditions is peer to a angle of a stellar aberration component 20.5").
"The phenomenon of a stellar aberration is, that the stars change the visible position on a sky. Within one year they describe ellipses with fixed center, the semimajor axis has which one the arc sizes in 20.5". The semi minor axis is various. It is peer to the semimajor axis for stars lying in a direction, perpendicular to a plane of Earth orbit and is peer to zero point for stars lying in a plane of Earth orbit. From a point of view of fixed ether the aberration is explained by motion of the Earth concerning ether. The wave entering through a lens О a telescope, expends time t=L/c on reaching eyes of the spectator. But for this time the telescope will pass a way s=vt, and light does not fall in an eye. That light has got in an eye, the telescope is necessary for inclining in the side of motion on a angle = tg = S/L = /c. If to substitute velocity of the Earth v=30 kms/sec and с=300000 kms/sec, =10-4 radians = 20.5"(!). From a point of view of the theory of a Hertz (which one guesses, that the ether completely has a carry along by moving bodies - V.K.) the stellar aberration should not be, as the light beams entering a telescope, are spread in an ether, which one is gone together with a telescope and any lag of light will not be. Thus, the relativity for optical phenomena, which one should be run in the theory of a Hertz, results in denying of a stellar aberration". N.I. Kariakin etc., Brief manual on physics, "Higher School", М., 1962, page 302-303. From a point of view of new physics "fixed ether" is equivalent to a absolute reference system (unimportantly thus, whether there is it actually), therefore calculating value of a stellar aberration coincides with apparent. This observation indicates the vectorial sum of speed of light and spectator and simultaneously contradict the second postulate SRT, indicating on an inaccuracy of this theory.
From a figure 24.3.1 it is visible, that:
By substituting =/2, (24.3.3) and (24.3.4) in (24.3.1), we shall discover:
In (24.3.5) expression it is possible to converse to a kind:
Applying to (24.3.6) the known approximate formula: in which one at x<<a it is possible to limit only by first term in a right part, we shall discover:
by substituting (24.3.7) in (24.3.5), we shall receive:
Thus, the angle on a figure 24.3.1 appears by such, that the source S radiates in this direction the same frequency of light, as well as at transversal Doppler effect. Comparing (24.3.8) and (24.3.2) is visible, that the spectator moving together with a source always will watch red displacement of frequency, maximum along a current of traffic. Under these formulas it is possible to find a direction and value of absolute speed. From the formulas (24.3.2) and (24.3.8) it is easy to receive connection between absolute speed of motion of a remote galaxy and relative frequency change of a spectral line it. Substituting in (24.3.8) expression for a relative frequency change of a spectral line , we shall receive absolute speed of a galaxy moved by a parallel course:
Substituting (24.3.2), we shall receive absolute speed of a galaxy moved ahead or behind us:
Official physics fools the astronomers, when they arrest a zero relative frequency change of a spectral line of a remote galaxy, is erroneous considering, that concerning us the velocity of this galaxy is peer to zero point. As at the same velocity of a source and spectator we always apparent red displacement, from the formula (24.3.1) it is possible to find a ratio of velocities of a source and spectator at which one =0 (z=0). If the spectator is gone ahead of a source, from (24.3.1):
where VS - absolute speed of a source, and Vsp - absolute speed of the spectator. If the source is gone ahead of the spectator, from (24.3.1):
The graphs of expressions (24.3.11) and (24.3.12) are shown on a figure 24.3.2.
From a figure it is visible, that catching up should be moves always faster escaping, that the relative frequency change of a spectral line of a remote galaxy was equal to zero point. If the escaping object is gone with velocity C/2, catching up should be moves with speed of light for fulfilment of this requirement. As in dilated pursuant to the law Hable the Universe the velocity of catching up object always is less escaping, in any point of the Universe we should watch red displacement (if not to allow for peculiar velocities).
The fixed mirror reflects photons of that frequency, which one perceives. The moving mirror is "source" of light and radiates photons pursuant to the formula (24.1.3), where - frequency reflected by a fixed mirror. All this is fair and for light passing through a transparent plate, moving in vacuum.
We are address to a figure 24.5.1. The photon is gone in medium with velocity Cm=C/n.
The motion is possible to view it, as simultaneous motion with velocity C and "blowing" in the counter side with velocity V0. Apparently, that:
Behind absence of more constitutive thoughts, suppose, that "blowing" of a photon at motion of medium happens to the same factor, as in the formula (24.5.1), and the factor from velocity does not depend, then velocity of "blowing" of a photon by moving medium:
where V - velocity of medium. Certainly, this guess inaccurately reflects a reality. For example, the experiments of the Fizo give value of factors in (24.5.2) not (1-1/n), and (1-1/n2). But also it is impossible to recognize a factor of the Fizo precise, as, as we have found out, the index of refraction of medium depends on a angle between vectors of velocities of a photon and medium, which one spontaneously varies. Holding on in this book of priority of short before an in-depth analysis, from a figure 24.5.1 we shall discover velocity of a photon Vph in moving medium (velocity "blowing" V us now does not interest):
From (24.5.3): at =0 (medium is gone on a light ray) , at = (medium is gone towards to a light ray) , and at =/2 (medium is gone across a trajectory of a photon, which one would be in fixed medium) .
As well as it is necessary to expect, at n=1 (medium misses) Vph=С, and at V=0, Vph=C/n.
The calculation on (24.5.3) displays, that "blowing" of photons in a Earth's atmosphere at its orbital motion makes an angle 0.006" in the counter side to an angle of aberration of stars (20.5").
The previous sections have prepared the reader for new explanation of negative result of a Michelson experiment, which one was an incitement to appearance SRT. The experiment of Michelson is that touchstone, on which one classic physics has broken grinders and the theory of the Einstein "has triumphed". However this celebration apparent, since the explanation of results of experiment with the help of a theory of relativity is incorrect, in particular, is purely skipped (differently Michelson experiment it is impossible to explain) that experimentally fact in evidence, that the light source changes the frequency of photons in velocity function of motion (for example, transversal Doppler effect). American physicists Albert Abraham Michelson (1852-1931) and Edward Williams Morley (1869-1923) with the purpose to find out "an ether wind", existing according to the theory of the Lorentz, have put this experiment in 1887. For explanation of negative result of a Michelson experiment the Fitcdgerald and Lorentz have put forward contraction a hypothesis, according to which one the sizes of bodies in a current of traffic decrease in the relation , where =V2/C2. The Einstein by results of this experiment considered, that all spectators measuring speed of light, will receive the same result irrespective of, what velocity of his proper motion in space.
Now we shall receive explanation of results of a Michelson experiment on the basis of developed in this book neoclassical of notions and denying of relativity.
Michelson with the help of the interferometer figured on a figure 24.6.1, attempted to determine absolute speed of the Earth on displacement of interference stripes at rotational displacement of an interferometer on 900, but has received zero result, which one does not depend on frequency of a light source (moving with an interferometer or space "fixed") from length of arms of an interferometer.
Without dependence from frequency of a source S the translucent mirror M is moving with absolute speed by V source, which one on a arm L1 creates frequency (see (15.3.8)):
and on an arm L2 (see (24.3.2)):
The number of waves N stowed on trajectories l is connected to frequency of light and speed of light С a ratio:
For a ray 1: (24.6.4),
and for a ray 2:
Substituting (24.6.1) and (24.6.4) in (24.6.3), we shall discover:
where - the number of waves stowed on the arm L1 of an absolutely fixed interferometer (is gone whether or not the source S has not value). Substituting (24.6.2) and (24.6.5) in (24.6.3), we shall discover:
Substituting (24.6.2) and (24.6.6) in (24.6.3), we shall discover:
Sum up (24.6.8) and (24.6.9), we shall receive:
where - number of waves stowed on the arm L2 of an absolutely fixed interferometer.
Thus, we see that the interference figure created by rays 1" and 2" remains to a constant (difference in phase of photons of these rays’ remains to a constant) without dependence from absolute speed of an interferometer and orientation it of relatively this velocity.
Here it is necessary to note, that as the expression (24.3.2) is precise, and (24.3.8) approximate, there is a potential capability in the future to determine absolute speed of movement of object, on which one the interferometer with a multiple reflection of a ray, almost perpendicular current of traffic (figure 24.6.2) is established.
From a laser source S light on a translucent mirror M1 is parted on a ray 1, which one multiply is reflected from mirrors M3 and M4 and translucent mirror M2 is superposed with straight lines by a ray 2 and gives an interference figure dependent on value of absolute speed V and orientations of an interferometer concerning vector of this velocity.
Partially they were indicated earlier. Source of light radiates photons of true frequency, i.e. those, for which one radius of a screw trajectory in 2 times is less than a wavelength (step of a screw line), and the spectator perceives photons of apparent frequency. Radius of a screw trajectory of perceived photons is more or less computational wavelength, rather measured by it, depending on, whether it is gone towards to a light ray or on its direction. If on trajectories of light there is a hindrance A (figure 24.7.1) sizes which one of d</, instead of a hindrance A we shall see a diffraction ring В that a part of photons, which one could get in the area of a ring, are immersed by a hindrance at hit on it. Diameter of a diffraction ring, thus, is determined by true, instead of apparent frequency of light.
It is possible to offer and other ways of measurement of absolute speed using that radius of a screw trajectory of a photon (and other particles) depends only on its true frequency.
The relativity of motions can be denied, exploring and only mechanical phenomena. For example, by untwisting a blob in an inertial system, we shall watch precession it of the gravidynamic moment around of vector of absolute speed of a system, and the frequency of precession is proportional to absolute speed. The absolute speed also can be determined, measuring mass of a body in an inertial system, as it is a function of moving speed of a body. Thus, the Einstein, by taking for an initial postulate a relativity of motions, receives the formula linking moving speed of a body and mass of this body. As mass of a body we can determine and it is absolute, we shall discover also absolute speed therefore received formula contradicts an initial postulate of the Einstein, therefore, his theory internally is contradictory. We also have shown that for relativistic area this formula is at all unsuitable.
The theory of relativity has given rise mass of paradoxes, which one indirectly indicate its inaccuracy. For example, viewing a relativity of simultaneity SRT connects coordinate of a point to an instant of time, but as "beginning" of coordinates arbitrary, arises a unsolvable inconsistency: the event A earlier В and is simultaneous later В, and the difference is arbitrary and depends on a scale of an axis Х! With clocks the same unsolvable paradox, since "moving" go slower "fixed", and motion relatively, one clocks go simultaneously faster and slower others.
"In "clocks" of Messbauer the photons released by radio-isotope iron, included in a structure of a crystal iron will be utilized. Identical clocks of Messbauer display the same time with accuracy 10-16. The time variation on such share results in sharp increase of velocity of the score of photons. In experiment on check of deceleration of a course of time clocks of Messbauer were go by in spin and, as has appeared, went slower in times identical superincumbent of clocks. Thus, theory (SRT - V.K.) again was affirmed". From a point of view of new physics this experiment (as well as others similar) displays strengthening "clocks" at the expense of growth of a gravitational charge and, accordingly, of a gravidynamic field with increase of moving speed. Earlier is shown, as far as is sharply incremented a gravidynamic factor from moving speed. Thus a radioactive decay of an isotope iron is slowed down. Explicitly this problem is surveyed in chapter 11.1 dedicated gravidynamic interactions and in the chapters, relating to elementary particles. Comparing among themselves indications of such clocks established on Earth satellites, are easy are to determined by an instantaneous direction and absolute speed of motion of the Earth in space.
Really is not absurd from a point of view of sensible physical sense addition the velocities in SRT, when, for example, two electrons which are radiated in the counter sides with the velocity 0.9 С concerning a source, under the relation to each other moves with velocity are less than speed of light. The elementary experiment, when two spectators "meet" these electrons gives value of velocity of each electron 90 % from speed of light, their relative velocity signifies makes 1.8 С.
Amplify critics SRT it is not make sense. This critic in the literature has enough from the origin SRT and to this day. An alone deficiency of critics was that they almost nothing could offer in exchange, from a unified point of view by explaining all experiments on a given subject and not entering in the conflicting to mass of other test data.
Most by sensible arguments against a theory of relativity the author considers following. Basically, the theory of relativity does not see a difference between a solar System on Ptolemaic and Copernicus. To see this difference, the concept of an inertial reference system is entered, which one obeys to a law of inertia (first Newton's laws). The inertial system does not interact with others, i.e. is free. It is considered, that the theory of relativity usable only to such systems. But similar systems substantially does not exist neither in micro nor in a macroworld, all of them can not be considered as free, therefore theory of relativity it is simple there is nothing to apply. In this book is enough convincingly shown, that it is possible with a large strained interpretation to consider any body, which one as free, is gone on a screw line. In this case existence of inertial systems in classic comprehension is impossible not only practically, but also theoretically.
To address to a problem of red shift radiation the broad controversy around of this problem constrains. Thus the writers interpret red shift in radiation of the distant objects of the Universe by the most different image, coming frequently to opposite conclusions.
1. Reddening of radiation at the expense of dissipation. The mechanism of a reddening of radiation is exact same, as a reddening of the Sun on sunset, when its rays are dispersed on fluctuations of density and motes at passing a thick atmospheric layer. At a reddening at the expense of dissipation the photons with the greater energy are dispersed stronger, and the long-wave photons practically are not dispersed, therefore start to dominate in passing radiation. The spectral lines at a radiation scattering remain on the places. This effect does not cause disputes and widely will be used by the astronomers in practical activity.
2. Reddening of radiation at the expense of «aging» of photons. The photons at the space travel can interact with other particles (electrons, neutrino etc.). Thus they can receive padding energy or to lose a part it, accordingly, the radiated frequency thus varies for vigorous photons rather stronger. As a result of interplay the photon necessarily will change the trajectory and any more can not get to the spectator, since is displaced in any random direction. Therefore «aged» of photons we shall not see, and we shall watch a reddening of radiation similar to point 1.
3. Reddening of radiation at the expense of «cooling» at the extension. So explain originating so-called «relict» radiation. The very vigorous photons after Big Bang «cooled down» in process of the extension of the Universe and to the present time correspond to equilibrium temperature 2.7 К. On notions of official physics a wavelength of photons «was dilated» together with the extension of the Universe after Big Bang. Whence each photon knows, how to conduct oneself, outgoing from a general information about state of the Universe, official physics holds back. If the compressed air is dilated in vacuum, it is chilled; apparently, this not having relation to a considered problem the fact has induced to error matching. It is represented apparent, that from time of birth of the Universe the vigorous ancestors of modern relict radiation have given uncountable breeds of the more and more gentle descendants and, eventually, have given a world countless number of absolutely gentle photons of relict radiation already to anything not capable. Any object of the Universe not having of an internal power source intensively exchanges an occluded vigorous photon for set of photons with the greater wavelength. This process behind rare exceptions of multiphoton occluding is irreversible and results in cooling of any body and all Universe as a whole. Therefore photons of relict radiation have the same relation to photons at birth of the Universe, what relation we have to those prehistoric mammals, from which one we, eventually, have taken place. The relict radiation speaks only about one: now mean temperature of the Universe makes 2.7 К. Any star generates radiation continuously reamed with speed of light on huge space, and any reddening of photons thus does not take place. Therefore notions of official physics concerning «relict» radiation are erratic. Besides, they contradict an energy conservation law. If quantity today's of relict photons is approximately equal to quantity them at birth of the Universe, where their huge initial energy has got to? To execute an energy conservation law quantity of relict photons should be so great, that their common energy was about peer of common energy of photons at birth of the Universe. It is possible to ensure it only with uncountable reradiations with exchange of energy of an absorbed photon on a great many again of born photons with smaller energy of each of them.
This formula describes a reddening of radiation from area of a strong gravitational field. Apparently, that most strong gravitational field will be at on an edge of the Universe, and in process of movement to its center of a field decays similarly, how it takes place in process of penetration in the Earth. Let's consider, that we are somewhere near center of the Universe (about us there are no quasars). As a matter of convenience, we shall count spacing interval from us up to edge of the Universe in fractions from its radius, i.e. instead of r0 in the formula (24.8.1) we substitute r0/r. Besides mass of an internal part of the Universe at given r we shall count through mean density of the Universe. All data for the Universe as a whole earlier are obtained and are submitted in chapter 29.1. Substituting in (24.8.1) all numerical values, we shall receive a design formula:
The function (24.8.2) is shown on a figure 24.8.1.
At r0/r = 1 (on an edge of the Universe) z = 339, and at r0/r = 2 (on half of spacing interval up to edge of the Universe) z = 0.33. The figure 24.8.1 demonstrates, that the gravitational reddening of radiation has not linear dependence from spacing interval up to object, therefore, does not explain the law the Habble. Apart 5 billions of light years the relative frequency drift of spectral lines is significant less observed, but the indispensable corrections on a gravitational reddening should be entered.
The radiation both at birth of the Universe, and at its subsequent evolution can not abandon the Universe to ensure its eternal existence, which one does not have alternative. Therefore radiation, reaching edge of the Universe, returns back, since his conveying speed does not exceed the first escape velocity for the Universe as a whole. Thus on direct and return ways the radiation changes the frequency at the expense of a gravitational reddening and become blue, but in the whole energy conservation law does not allow to lose a radiation energy «in anywhere». As a result of such homogenization of radiation on a volume of the Universe it becomes in a large-scale isotropic without dependence from energy of photons.
5. Reddening of radiation at the expense of Doppler effect. At first we shall check up on a validity the formula of Doppler effect obtained in a special relativity theory (SRT):
where: 0 - wavelength fixed rather each other source and receiver. - angle between velocity vector and direction on a source.
The formula of Doppler effect of new physics (24.1.3) in chapter 24.1:
Here it is necessary to mark, that SRT are considered as a matter of fact with speed of light as absolute speed, though does not advertise it. Therefore it is necessary to recognize speed V in the formula (24.8.5) also absolute, instead of relative velocity; differently Doppler effect will depend on selection of a reference system. The formula (24.8.4) is obtained from a principle of absolute motion. Light source in general spit, whether somebody watches of it. On a course of motion it beams photons, the energy which one is put together with translational energy at the expense of motion of a source. The photons with smaller energy for the same reason are backwards beamed. The charts of functions (24.8.4) (red color) and (24.8.5) (cyan color) are shown on a figure 24.8.2.
The digits near to curves indicate ratio V/C. From a figure 24.8.2 it is visible, that under both theories the curves are symmetric concerning a current of traffic of a source that was possible to expect because of symmetry of a problem. At speed of a source 10% from speed of light, the curves under both formulas practically coincide (is shown a black line). Besides the applicable cyan and red curves are intercepted in points -/2 and /2. It indicates the same expression for transversal Doppler effect (chapter 24.1). Let's try to analyze two competitive expressions from the point of view of sensible physical sense. At motion of a source with speed of light forward it can beam photons with energy no more doubled energy of photons of a fixed source. The second half photon receives at the expense of energy of source motion. In these conditions back it nothing beams, since the motion of a source «discontinues» a photon in this direction, its absolute speed will become to equal zero point. The expression (24.8.5) from the point of view of sensible physical sense behaves very strange. At nearing speed of a source to speed of light the frequency of photons which are radiated on a current of traffic, unrestrictedly increases, work for perpetuity, since the fraction denominator decreases much faster than numerator. At reach of speed of light the source in general ceases something to beam in any direction. Such cases in mathematics meet very much frequently, but in substantial processes of such tricks it does not happen. On this basis the formula for Doppler effect obtained in frameworks SRT is necessary is to recognized error, as well as theory SRT.
From the conducted analysis it is possible to draw a conclusion, that the observed red shift of remote objects of the Universe is conditioned by Doppler effect, as a consequent of the extension of the Universe on inertia after Big Bang.
The figure 24.8.2 demonstrates that the radiation of relativistic objects collects ahead of a source and with ultimate output is diffused forward as a ray of the floodlight. Therefore on outskirts by the Universe space objects (quasars, galaxies separate stars) these floodlights are turned outwards and are active brakes the extension of the Universe since are look-alike to a photon rocket, the engine by which one turned on braking. Inside the Universe we can watch similar floodlights only short time, when the spurt of matter takes place to a relativistic velocity in our direction. Such spurt will look as a flash, the spectrum by which one is step-by-step displaced to long-wave area at the expense of decreasing speed.
6. Reddening of radiation at the expense of the extension of space. For many pundits now by favorite toys it is space and time, with which may do anything you like. Anybody from them has not found time to demonstrate yet, that space and time not interspaces between things and events, and substantial physical objects. Nevertheless, they widely will use since to test, whether space was bent or in it was arose «mole's burrow» it is impossible. By outcome of these distortions was the notion that at the extension of the Universe space is extension also, i.e. is expanded, including the electromagnetic wave, radiation «grows old» in outcome there is a relict radiation. If to it to get accustomed closer, in photons of this radiation it is possible to learn the photons which have arisen at birth by the Universe, only with a lengthy gray-haired beard. I shall not trouble these pundits, let and further are amused in the pleasure as their notions contradict an energy conservation law.
The wave-corpuscle dualism of photons by nothing differs from a wave-corpuscle dualism of any microparticles. Therefore, at «stretching» of a wavelength of a photon the associated waves of any fragments «are expanded», that means decreasing their mass if to interprete a de Broglie formula how it official physics understands. Where disappears bound with mass energy? Allowing for scales of the extension of the Universe «stretching» of waves of microparticles does to impossible interplay by exchange of «virtual» particles and together with this impossible existence of atom nuclei and atoms. The numerous consequences of wave «stretching» result in full discrediting of a modern physics and consequently them better to not esteem.
7. Appearance of radiation of relativistic sources. The speed of sound in given environment as is absolute, as the speed of light, i.e. does not depend on rate of movement of radiation source. Therefore appearance of a sound field at speed of a source of an equal speed of sound or superior it is similar to appearance of a photon field of any wave-lengths at speed of a source of equal speed of light or more it. It is as a matter of convenience, a sound field and photon field we shall call as a field of radiation. For fixed sources of a field of radiation spherically symmetric and in all sides the waves (or photons) with identical frequency are beamed. At increase of a rate of movement of a source the spherical field of radiation is flattened in traffic route and at achievement of a speed of sound or speed of light is transformed into the thin disk, the plane which one is perpendicular to traffic route. Thus the radiation is diffused only in a radial direction of this disk that is well visible from a figure 24.8.3, where the overcoming by an airplane of a sound barrier is shown.
At further increase of speed the disk is transformed into a hollow thin-wall cone. The apex angle of a cone, where there is a radiation source, decreases with increase of a rate of movement.
Is applicable the set up notions to the best comprehension that we see or not we see on a sky. It is understandable, that in this case we shall conduct speech only about relativistic space objects it speed is comparable to speed of light in vacuum. It is clear that to see we can only that relativistic light source, which one is gone in a plane, perpendicular direction of observation. If it is gone in anyone the other direction to see it is impossible. If a source is the envelope, inflating with a relativistic velocity, we are capable to watch only cross section of this envelope, perpendicular observer-target line as a luminous ring by exact or out of shape. Inside this ring the radiation misses (if there are no stars). Therefore, arresting a flash of a supernew star, we as a matter of fact arrest cross section of its envelope and the substantial scales of catastrophe appear considerably more observed. The relativistic rejects of a material in a plane of a perpendicular observer-target line can look as different luminous arcs in any wave band. Relativistic objects in the Universe are arrested considerably less their true number because of the extremely unfavorable conditions for their observation. The exception is made only by relativistic envelopes.
Comments of the author to chapter 24.8:
1. Response on the article Charles H. Lineweaver and Tamara M. Davis «Paradoxes of Big Bang», journal «In a world of science», № 7, 2005 (on a site http://www.sciam.ru) . The extension of the Universe the writers compare to an inflated children's bead, on a surface which one the galaxies are not drawn, and are attached to it, saving the value, but augmenting spacing interval among themselves. The article is pierced by orthodox logic, on which one the simple people can not understand the modern theories and to them should illustrate, that is correct, and that amiss. And mandate from the god, that he by him has entrusted to own true in the last resort to nobody demonstrate and to ask it is impossible at modern monopolism on true. The instructions go only with Olympus, the back address is not present, therefore prolong quietly to pay taxes for development of fundamental science.
«After 75 years after discovery of the extension of the Universe many scientists can not penetrate into its true sense». After discovery of the extension of the Universe crowds of the scientists dashs on untrampled a field everyone with delirious ideas and have complicated this problem finally. It seemed, that it is easier to go by a straight way: if dilates means there was a Big Bang and the debris it as galaxies scatter in a slowed-up way on inertia. The solution of problems on this path cannot be covered by new conjectures. In this chapter is convincingly shown, that the official formula of effect of the Doppler is erratic. Besides the maximum gravity potential on boundary of the dilativing Universe also decreases to center of Big Bang (gravity potential similarly changes in process of penetration in the Earth). Therefore we receive photons from area of large gravity potential and any accelerated extension of the Universe is not present, but only deboosting pursuant to a law of universal gravitation.
« It there was explosion space, which one has resulted matter in motion. Our space and time has arisen in Big Bang and beginning to be extensions. Anywhere there was no center, since the conditions everywhere were identical, any pressure overbalance, characteristic for customary explosion, was not». Explosion and isotropic extension of space and time, apparently, one of newest «achievements» of a modern cosmology. Around vacuum: the Universe practically empty, galaxies too almost empty, and we - moving vacuum if to take into account ratio of volumes of electrons and nuclei to a volume of atoms.
Therefore, if to follow the logic of the writers of the article together with the extension of space all bodies of the nature, especially galaxies should be expanded. However, the writers, resulting unconvincing proofs, negate the extension of bodies. The general impression from the article corresponds to the law, opened by me, of a degradation of ideas. Initial physically clear ideas step-by-step acquire crazy additions and after all are transformed into a subject suitable for a waste tip of a history of science. Examples? The theory of the Bohr - wave quantum mechanics, fundamental particles - string theory, Big Bang - extension of space and time etc. The science is a minefield, on which one each step requires discretion. Earlier scientists were engaged in science not on a duty, therefore and outcomes quite good. Now huge competition, is necessary to complete the salary and to outmarch the numerous contenders, therefore there is no time to reflect.
2. I reject «the extension of space».
Let's suspect, that after Big Bang the matter of the Universe had very much temperature and applicable spectrum of heat radiation with a maximum applicable to this temperature. In process «extension of space» the wavelength of all photons is proportionally augmented, therefore all radiation spectrum as a whole should displace in long-wave area without distorting the form. However, the experiments demonstrate, that the spectra of heat radiation for miscellaneous temperatures have the miscellaneous form and do not correspond to simple displacement as a whole on a wavelength scale. Therefore «the extension of space» contradicts the experimental data.
3. Scholastic debate around of «relict» radiation.
On each new scientific fact the visionaries of all world, as flys on honey are flied. Some consider a high isotropy of radiation, others indicate the facts of an anisotropy, third invent the facts sucked from the finger. The new scientific fact fast becomes by center of a full confusion. In my judgement, research of «relict» radiation we measure temperature of the proximate space environment (basically, cosmic dust). In the other place of a Galaxy these data can appear absolutely others, therefore to diffuse this fact on all Universe is imprudent. Let's mount on an airship above some terrain and we shall measure heat radiation from different sites of this terrain. We shall be surprised of high isotropy of radiation, though in some directions we shall fix a minor anisotropy. All visionaries are better for placing on this airship.
4. The redshift is watched even at angles of motion of beaming object smaller 900 in relation to the spectator.
By sectioning both parts of an equation (24.8.4) on n0 it is easy to count up, that the redshift of spectral lines at V/C = 0,9 will be watched at value of a angle more than 630 (figure 24.8.2), and at V/C = 0,5 - it is more 750. It mean, that the redshift is demonstrated even by such objects, which one have component speed in a direction to us. As the peculiar objects frequently are observed, there is nothing surprising that two objects in the same place of space can demonstrate miscellaneous redshift of spectral lines.
5. The distant objects of the Universe are arranged much closer to us.
From a figure 24.8.1. clear it is visible, that the distant objects of the Universe at z> 0,3 are arranged much closer to us because of an error of definition of spacing interval on redshift. Therefore all estimations of power-engineering of quasars also are erratic.
6. «Temperature» of «relict» radiation is augmented with deleting from us.
We near to former center of Big Bang, since in process of deleting from us the activity of nuclei of galaxies increases, there are active galaxies and, at last, there is a vast zone of quasars. Apparently, that in our area of the Universe the «relict» radiation already has become long-wave and corresponds to low mean temperature of cosmos. In process of deleting in a zone of quasars mean temperature of cosmos is increased, accordingly, the wavelength of a maximum of heat radiation decreases also this fact has not any relation to «extension of space». The precise measurements of the form of a spectrum of «relict» radiation will show, that in spectrum of heat radiation at 2.7 K substantially is contained a radiation spectrum applicable more to a heat, and in a general spectrum can find out even small peak applicable to radiation from area of quasars.
At rejects from cores of active galaxies and quasars the observed linear speed of movement of radiospots can exceed speed of light С. For example, the observed linear speed of radiospots of a galaxy 3C120 makes about 4С. Naturally, that this speed is apparent. New physics enables maximum speed at the moment of reject from a core above , while the ejectable matter had no time to receive yet screw motion. But as such motion is established rather fast, the linear speed of movement can not exceed it speed of light. Official physics explains apparent superlight speed as follows. At reject of matter under some small angle to an observer-target line the projection of a running speed of matter Vp to a picture plane will make:
In process of moving of radiospots along a line of reject their radiation will come to the spectator earlier. Therefore official physics results the strange formula for observed speed of movement of radiospots. (Physical encyclopedia, v. 4, page 448-449):
Apparently, here obvious misprint and the formula (126.96.36.199) on presentation of official physics should look so:
With similar explanation it is impossible to agree for following reasons. At first, the second term in a denominator of the formula (188.8.131.52) should be non-dimensional value. Besides under the badge of a cosine there is also dimensional value at all not having of physical sense. Apparently, in this case, here something all wrong or not so is printed out. Secondly, incoming of radiation to the spectator earlier from those spots, which one are arranged closer to him, does not influence in any way apparent velocity movement of these spots in a picture plane, as the speed of light in this case is perpendicular of a picture plane. Except for the indicated incident, writers adds on unknowns to reasons also the Lorentzian factor, finally complicating the reader, though this factor influences only a radiated frequency on presentation of official physics (see chapter 24.8). Above mentioned is illustrated on a figure 184.108.40.206.
New physics tenders following explanation of phenomena at reject of matter with a relativistic velocity. A bit later after reject the material is gone on a screw trajectory. Thus the screw step is more than its diameter in p of time, and the beaming matter is distributed on all trajectory. In previous chapter 24.8 is shown, that the radiation collects in traffic route of a source within the limits of angle ± /2. Therefore at motion of matter on a screw trajectory «to us» we shall find out radiation, and at motion «from us» the radiation misses. In the total we shall watch a radiospot «driving» with speed 3.14×С. If the motion on a screw trajectory has not reached yet equilibrium state, when for one revolution on a screw line the linear movement is equal 2×r, i.e. the wavelength of de Broglie is more or less circumference of cross section of a screw trajectory, the observed speed of movement of a radiospot will differ from above indicated. It is understandable, that reject, directional in our side pursuant to chapter 24.8 will be significant brighter, than contrareject.
If the representations of official physics concerning «superlight» running speeds were valid, at observation of synchrotron emission we could to fix «superlight» speed of electrons generating this radiation, since the physical picture in this case is look-alike to motion in space.
The relativity theory requires the mandatory indicating of a reference system, as it outgoes from representation about even and rectilinear motion of free bodies. Such indicating the Bible authors have made, by placing in center of a world the flat Earth surrounded by the crystal dome with stars, fixed on it. Ptolemaeus has perfected this system, by leaving the Earth in center of a world. This reference system has appeared error and it should be exchanged by Copernicus a new reference system, where in center of a world the Sun is placed. In due course was found out, that Sun, our Galaxy nor can be considered in many cases as adequate reference systems. Such reference system now, apparently, is the relict radiation uniformly filling in the Universe. It is necessary to recognize, that the relativity theory is confused to selection of a reference system itself and complicates those who wants to be disassembled in conglomerations of this theory.
New physics recognizes existence of absolute motion and, accordingly, absolute reference system. Let's consider the elementary case, when the body № 1 commits right-handed motion in some direction. Behind it in pursuit of the body № 2 is gone. What will watch an orthodox in a reference system, bound with a body № 2? He will see also devices separately to confirm that fact, that the body № 1 is gone on the left-hand screw towards to him. And what he will see, run from bodies № 1 in that a direction? He again will fix left-handed motion of a body № 1, leaving from him. What conclusions can be made of these observations? Apparently, that any. And remained obscure, whither the body № 1 and is gone as it is gone. The exact conclusion can be made only from absolute, in this case, reference system, whence it is visible, that both bodies move along one direction with miscellaneous speed, and the body № 1 always has right-handed, instead of left-handed motion.
There is a natural problem, in what conditions it is possible to consider the given reference system absolute. If we is observed the wife, which one run about on a kitchen, for an absolute reference system is possible to accept walls of a house. But if we shall shaked a chandelier hanged to a ceiling, our sensing devices will show, that the plane of swinging is step-by-step turned in space, that is connected to rotation of the Earth around of an axis. In this case for an absolute reference system it is necessary to accept the spacecraft moved by a parallel course in relation to orbital motion of the Earth.
In the reviewed above case of motion of bodies № 1 and № 2 is easy to be disassembled in actual motions using the formulas of a relative frequency drift of a spectral line (24.3.11) and (24.3.12) for cases, when the spectator ahead of a driving source and behind. For this purpose on a body № 1 there should be a light source (even mentally) or we can study a reflected beam, sent by us. Then at motion after to a body № 1 we shall watch red displacement of a spectral line until we shall increase the speed pursuant to the formula (24.3.12) until, that the relative frequency drift of a line will become Z = 0. In this case we shall be convinced, that we catch up with a source № 1, and it is gone in one direction with us. Therefore becomes clear as a current of traffic of a body № 1 and that it has right-handed motion. Is similar, if we shall ahead of a source on a current of traffic and we shall begin to change the speed, we shall be convinced, that at increase of speed the red displacement of a spectral line is augmented, and at braking decreases until will become Z = 0. At further braking we shall watch already cyan displacement of a spectral line and we shall come to those to conclusions as at arrangement of a body № 2 behind a body № 1 on a course of motion.
Thus, the great tangle with reference systems in a relativity theory fades if to use an absolute reference system, which one does not depend on desire of the explorer to receive the outcome, necessary to him. The selected absolute reference system not be influenced by any factors located outside of this system. Otherwise it is necessary to select a new reference system, that these factors become not external, and internal.
Comments of the author to chapter 24.9:
1. Absolute reference system - light.
By learning chapters 24.1-24.8 the reader was convinced, that without notions about absolute motion it is impossible adequately to describe aberration of stars, Michelson experiment and many other things, in particular, everything, that is connected to a relativity theory, which one about absolute motion has not notion. To bypass principled difficulties, which one arise from notions about relative movement and inertial reference systems, fof which the relative velocity cannot be established one because of even and rectilinear motion, scientifics prefer an absolute reference system. One of such systems is the fixed ether. But it cannot be found out experimentally, therefore it is impossible to find absolute speed of a body. As a «modern» absolute reference system many consider isotropic relict radiation. Really, using this reference system it is possible to learn, with what speed and where the solar System as a whole is moves. The motion of free bodies on a screw trajectory in itself absolutely also does not demand any reference systems, but now this notion of new physics meets skeptical attitude for the majority of the scientists and more has not taken possession of their thoughts sufficiently. For them it is possible to offer one more absolute reference system - light beam. Though each photon of this beam moves on a screw trajectory, as a whole light beam is displaced in space uniformly and rectilinearly. Light could not execute a function of an absolute reference system, if had not surprising property - identical rate of propagation in vacuum not dependent from a direction in space. Using that the speed of light is always constant and does not depend on speed of a source and, at the same time, geometrically is piled with speed of an optical receiver, basically, we always can experimentally define an absolute direction and absolute speed of any body, by placing in it an optical receiver and being oriented on any external source, which one can move, somehow.