Concerning capture of one space body by another the modern cosmology gives the unequivocal answer - it is impossible without presence of the third body. The explanation is very simple. The gravitational energy interaction of bodies is transformed into a kinetic energy of "falling" them against each other. If a trapping body it is little as contrasted to arresting (central), the trapping body will describe around of a central body a parabolic trajectory and again will leave in perpetuity. The main reason of impossibility of capture is, that the trapping body is incapable by any way rather fast to lose exuberant energy. The energy loss is possible only at the long-lived revolution around of a central body under activity of tidal and other forces, which one all are together too small for embodying capture at once. The change of a potential energy of two bodies, interacting at the expense of a gravitation, how it itself is introduced by a modern cosmology is shown on a figure 21.1.

In any point r0 a potential energy of a body m (the central body M is in point of origin), equal W0 is simultaneously peer to a kinetic energy of a body m, that requires an energy conservation law (common energy is peer to zero point). Therefore in any point a body m capable "to recoil" on indefinitely large distance from M and its capture is impossible. "Within the framework of a gravitational problem of two bodies capture or outbreak are impossible, as there are absent factors which are capable to change a full mechanical energy of bodies". Physics of space, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1976, page 74. That the capture has taken place, the body m on indefinitely large distance from M should have negative energy, that physically it is impossible, since the potential energy m this condition is peer to zero point, and the kinetic energy is always plus. Is received that the body belonging to a solar System has some total energy having negative value, therefore it can not abandon a system (outbreak is impossible). The body not belonging to a solar System has some total energy (kinetic) always having positive value; therefore it can not be captured. Thus, from a point of view of modern science, any space system is isolated in relation to a mass transfer. To straight lines a corollary it is the conclusion that all bodies belonging to a solar System, belonged to it always, therefore, the solar System could be formed only simultaneously and of one protoplanetary of a cloud.

The reasoning of the orthodoxes in a considered problem are so convincing, that it should seem, alternative by it does not exist. However observation data, for example, backward motion of some satellites, reverse rotation of some planets, constant clearing of interplanetary dust, meteorites both comets and set others with all evidence display an inaccuracy of notions of an official cosmology, both concerning formation of a solar System, and concerning the theory of a gravitational interaction as a whole.

New physics absolutely on diverse imagines gravitational interaction of two bodies. The potential energy of connection of these bodies sums up of a potential energy of attraction and potential energy of repulsion:


 Allowing a law of conservation of angular momentum, which one for invariable mass will be:

 Vr=                                                  (21.2)

 and substituting (21.2) in (21.1), we shall receive:


 Differentiating (21.3) on radius and equating a derivative to zero point, we shall discover radius of orbit, at which one the binding energy has a minimum:


By substituting (21.4) in (21.3), we shall discover a binding energy of two bodies:




The change of a potential energy is shown on a figure 21.2.


As it is visible from a figure, the body m will be moves around of a central body on a steady circular orbit of radius r0, since the system thus has a minimum of a potential energy. If m to impart some additional energy not superior that is determined by the formula (21.5), orbit will become elliptical. If the exuberant energy will be peer to a binding energy, orbit will become parabolic and the system will be destroyed because of removal m in perpetuity. The energy conservation law in case of capture is executed for the reason, that half of energy of attraction passes in energy of a repulsion and to delete m in perpetuity, it is necessary to impart this body energy, defined expression (21.5), i.e. second half, therefore common energy on infinite removal of bodies from each other again will become zero. Thus, the capture is unavoidable for any body, if its kinetic energy on indefinitely large distance from M does not exceed a binding energy (21.5) on steady orbit.

Let's suspect, that on indefinitely large distance from M the body m has a kinetic energy Ek component some share K from a binding energy W0 on the future circular orbit:


 Then the equation (21.3) can be recorded so:


Substituting (21.6) in (21.7) and allowing ratio (21.4) and (21.5), we shall discover the formulas for a perihelion and aphelion of orbit:

                 (21.8),                                    (21.9).


Equating (21.8) expression (13.19), we shall discover an eccentricity of orbit:


The formula (21.10) displays that again captured bodies have orbits with large eccentricities. For example, the body having a kinetic energy in perpetuity component only 1 % from a binding energy, on a circular orbit will have an eccentricity equal 0,1. If in the formula (21.10) to substitute (21.6), where , and also (21.4) and (21.5) and to take into account, that =r0V0, where V0 - orbital velocity on a circular orbit, we shall receive one more formula for an eccentricity of orbit of a captured body:


where: - velocity of a body m in perpetuity,

     V0 - velocity of a body m on a circular orbit, which one it will take after full consumption of exuberant energy Ek.

Let's consider mechanism a capture and evolution of orbit of an captured body in more detail.

Let's suspect that the body is gone in a solar System with an eccentricity equal 1. On modern notions this body, pass the perihelion of orbit, will be deleted again in perpetuity and can not be captured. On notions of new physics such motion of a body is equivalent to "impact" with a solar System and recoil of a body back. Thus on a law of conservation of momentum the body will transmit a part of the impulse to a solar System as a whole and the back branch of a trajectory will represent any more parabola, and the ellipse, i.e. eccentricity of orbit will appear less than 1. Thus, the body will appear captured and, at each passage of a perihelion, it will transmit to a solar System of a portion of the exuberant energy so long as orbit of a body will not become circular. Apparently, that for this purpose the speed n around of the Sun should be infinite, since the transmitted portions all time decrease. Therefore system of energy levels of an captured body is very similar to a system of energy levels of atom (see chapter "Theory of a hydrogen-like atom"). The circular orbit in these cases is reached at n. Here it is necessary to update, that the circular orbit can be reached neither in a hydrogen-like atom, nor in a space system. Therefore it is possible to speak only about some equilibrium orbit, close to circular, since in both cases the exited state arises at slightest effect at a system, as the levels of energy near to a circular orbit most are close set. In first case the atom is in an exited state even at temperature of absolute zero, and in the second case the exited state of space bodies is supported to constant by falling out on them of meteorites, comets and cosmic dust.

On a law of conservation of impulse:


where: m - mass of a trapping body,

       Vf - "exuberant" velocity m "forward",

       Vb - "exuberant" velocity m "back",

       M - Mass of an arresting body,

       VM - velocity gained M.

In (21.12) mass of the remaining terms of a system we leave out, otherwise under M it is necessary to understand total mass of a system.

The energy balance:



Deciding in unison (21.12) and (21.13), we shall discover:


 From (21.14): etc., therefore, for speed n the formula (21.14) starts a kind:


By substituting (21.15) in (21.11), we shall discover change of an eccentricity:


 By addressing to the formula (20.1.6), it is possible to explain to it as well by that the small masses lose less energy on each revolution and longer save a large eccentricity of orbit. The evolution of orbits of large masses happens much faster.

In (21.16) at n=0 (the capture still is not present) e=1, and at n, e0, since the fraction in (21.16) always is less 1.

The third Kepler's Law can be conversed to a kind:


where: T - period of rotation on elliptical orbit,

       T0 - period of rotation on a circular orbit,

       e - eccentricity.

The energy loss of a body m on each revolution around of a central body M will make:


where: Es - "exuberant" energy of a body m.

Using the formulas (21.16) and (21.17) it is easy to count up evolution of orbit of a captured body. For a simplicity, masses of bodies we shall consider invariable for a period of evolution.

Moon. Before capture by the Earth, moon should have value a almost same, as for the Earth, that equilibrium radius of its orbit around of the Sun was close to earth radius. Moon before capture by a solar System could not have velocity of 30 kms/sec and e=1, since after passage of a perihelion, its eccentricity remain too large (e=0.99999992614) and first revolution around of the Sun it would commit 17.6 billions years. In this case capture of moon by the Earth is impossible, except for a random direct hit. The velocity of moon in perpetuity less than 30 kms/sec, for example 20 kms/sec is more interquartile. In this case orbit of moon in a solar System will have an initial eccentricity 0.667 with orbital period 2.4 years. In two opposite points on a line, perpendicular main axis of orbit and passing through center of the Sun, orbits of the Earth and moon will be intercrossed. Near to these points the capture of moon by the Earth is possible. Now equilibrium eccentricity of orbit of moon makes 0.0549 and average speed of orbital motion about 1 km/sec. Let's suspect that in a start of capture moon had the same velocity concerning the Earth, i.e. being moves to the Earth on a parabolic trajectory, moon after passage of pericentre will gain an elliptical trajectory around of the Earth with an eccentricity 0.9757. The period of the first revolution around of the Earth will make 7 years, on the second revolution the eccentricity of orbit will be diminished up to 0.952, and period till 2.6 years etc. The stable orbit close to modern will be reached for 120 revolutions and on it is required all about 25 years. Such fast evolution of orbit of moon is connected to its large mass concerning the Earth.

Earth. If to consider, that the Earth before capture had velocity of 30 kms/sec (e=1), after the first passage of a perihelion the eccentricity of its orbit will become equal 0.99999399, and the time of the first revolution after capture will be 24 million years. On the second revolution e= 0.99998798 and T=8.5 millions years etc. The equilibrium eccentricity of orbit will be reached for 800000 revolutions, approximately, behind 102 million years.

Considerable mass of a satellite in relation to a central body and considerable eccentricity of its orbit is necessary for check of set up views on evolution of orbits. In a solar System there are two candidates for check: a Mercury and Nereid (satellite of Neptune). An eccentricity of a Mercury 0.2056, and relation to mass of the Sun 1.66×10-7, eccentricity of Nereid 0.75, and relation to mass of Neptune 3×10-7. If to take into account, that on a Mercury appreciable quantity of a space material should fall out, which one increments an equilibrium eccentricity of its orbit, the overseeing by orbit Nereid is more preferential.

Nereid. Under the literary data (E.N. Sluta etc. Comparative planetology. Moscow, "Science", 1995, page 88) radius Nereid 170 kms. Mass it is unknown, but, by accepting density 1.5 g/cm3, we shall discover m=3.087×1020 g. Mass of Neptune 102×1027 g. If Nereid had a parabolic trajectory before capture by Neptune, for reaching an eccentricity 0.75 it should make 47550755 revolutions around of Neptune. Now orbital period of Nereid around of Neptune makes 8643.1 hours. The calculation displays, that with each revolution this period should decrease for 0.73 seconds.

The rather fast evolution of orbit is possible only for captured bodies, mass which one not less than 10-7 mass of a central body. The less massive bodies "recoil" from a central body practically without energy loss and the evolution of their orbit are stipulated by other reasons:

1. All bodies of a solar System are subject to activity of "solar wind". At motion on elliptical orbit towards to "solar wind" the loss of exuberant energy exceeds its entry at removal of a body from the Sun.

2. The exact same mechanism is acts at a body irradiation by photons which are radiated the Sun. At motion towards to the Sun the body immerses more short-wave photons, than at motion from the Sun.

3. The comets represent ice lumps from a water, ammonia and methane with "stuffing" from meteoroids. Therefore comets rather fast fail under activity of irradiation both tidal action of the Sun and their orbit rather fast evolved. In the total from comets there is a meteoric swarm, in which one the evolution of orbits of separate bodies depend on their mass.

In all these cases at each revolution around of the Sun the body loses a portion of exuberant energy, and its orbit comes nearer to circular.

1. The flow of protons of "solar wind" near to the Earth makes ~2.5 protons/cm2×sec, and velocity it 400 kms/sec (Physics of space. М., 1976, page 555-556). The asteroid of radius r, driving in neighborhoods of the Earth on elliptical orbit to the Sun will meet "solar wind" with velocity of 430 kms/sec, and at motion from the Sun - 370 kms/sec. The loss of an exuberant kinetic energy of an asteroid for one second will make:


where: S - sectional area of an asteroid (m2),

mp - mass of protons falling in one second on 1m2 of cross section of an asteroid (kg).

The full exuberant energy of an asteroid driving with an eccentricity equal 1 in neighborhoods of the Earth will make:


where: m - mass of an asteroid (kg),

V - velocity of an asteroid (30000 m/sec).

Density of a material of an asteroid we shall accept equal 3000 kg/m3. By dividing (21.20) on (21.19), we shall discover time of full loss of exuberant energy of an asteroid. Thus it will be moves on a circular orbit. Here we do an appreciable error in calculations, since (21.19) depends on a position of an asteroid on orbit. The precise calculation is impossible, therefore it is necessary to consider the received below formula only as first approach:

                                     T=1.794×1016×r  (sec)                                  (21.21).

The asteroid of radius 1 m under the formula (21.21) will take a circular orbit behind 568 millions years, and mote of radius 1 micron for 568 years. During existence of a solar System (5 billions years) to lose all exuberant energy at the expense of this effect the asteroids with radius less than 10 m could only. Therefore bodies of the greater size having a small eccentricity of orbit could be captured with rather small initial velocity.

2. In the chapter "Driving in vacuum the spectator, the source is immobile" the formulas for frequency of light are received perceived by the spectator, moved to a source:  and from a source: . The difference of energies of photons perceived by a space body, which one will be expended for decreasing of exuberant energy of this body will make:


The solar constant is peer 1400 watt/m2 (Physics of space. М., 1976, page 551). If the space body is gone near to the Earth with parabolic velocity of 30 kms/sec, with the registration (21.22) on each revolution around of the Sun power of energy loss:

              (watt)                                    (21.23),

where r - radius of a body.

By dividing (21.20) on (21.23) we shall receive:

                                    T=2.04×105×r  (years)                                   (21.24).

The formula (21.24) displays, that under activity of photon radiation of the Sun the evolution of orbit of a space body flow past much faster, than under activity of "solar wind". The same asteroid of radius 1 m will take a circular orbit not through 568 millions years, and in 204000 years.

The satellites of planets at motion on a circular orbit have not exuberant energy, but all the same permanently lose energy on the enunciated mechanism, since are moves that to the Sun, from the Sun therefore above-stated calculation for satellites of planets appears more precise. For example, moon will lose completely all energy of orbital motion (velocity of this motion of  ~1 km/sec) for 11.8 billions years. Naturally, that it will fall on the Earth much earlier than full energy loss. Now becomes understandable, why for a Mercury and Venus are not present satellites, the energy loss in their neighborhoods so is significant, that the long-lived existence of a satellite is impossible. Moon exists as a satellite only at the expense of the huge sizes and rather recent captured by the Earth. For Mars and farther planets the solar constant is so small that the long-lived existence of satellites is becomes possible.

Now we shall look, as the enunciated new notions will be agreed practice of start of artificial satellites, i.e. with a inverse situation, when the body m does not approach with M, and is thrown out from it. It is known; see, for example, B.M. Javorsky, A.A. Detlaph. The manual on physics, "Science", М., 1964, page 79, that m has become a satellite M, it should be imparted the first solar escape velocity:


where R - radius of a central body. For removal m in perpetuity it is necessary to impart the second solar escape velocity (parabolic):


On a surface of a central body, the body m has a potential energy of attraction . That m has appeared in a potential well on orbit around of a central body, is apparent (see of fig. 21.2), that is necessary to impart it a potential energy of a repulsion , equal half of potential energy of attraction:


Conversing (21.27), we shall receive (21.25). To throw out m on indefinitely large distance (second solar escape velocity), it is necessary to it to impart a potential energy of a repulsion, equal potential energies of attraction (that the common energy has become to equal zero point):


From (21.28) we shall discover (21.26).

Thus, new physics, line up with official science concerning outbreak, about capture has opposite notions.



From (21.4) shall discover expression for :


For a solar System (21.29) will look like:

         cm2/sec                              (21.30).

The relation  to integers (quantumness of values ) is shown on a figure 21.3.



It is easy to show, that all planets and satellites in a solar System moves with the first solar escape velocity relevant to radius of their orbit. For this purpose, for example, we shall substitute value =V
× r in (21.4) and we shall receive (21.25). Allowing (21.25) also that r= r0× n2, is easy to receive a ratio: , which one displays, that the orbital velocity of planets or satellites of "earth" group or "jupiter" of group decreases in process of removal from a central body in an integer of times concerning velocity in the first quantum condition. Decreasing of centrifugal velocity of an electron at radiation of photons and formation of atom also in an integer of times (the formula (13.15)) indicates not only the family ties electrostatic and gravitational fields, but also on scale independence of their activity, i.e. generality of the laws macro and microcosm.

On a figure 21.4 points mark orbital velocities of planets of a solar System and their satellites (under the data: E.N. Sluta etc. Comparative planetology, М. "Science", 1995) depending on reverse value of their quantum number. On the basis of above-stated, each group of satellites should lie on a straight line; the tangent of a slope angle numerically is peer by which one of an orbital velocity of the term of this group the first quantum condition, i.e. V0. The straight lines are held on earlier received values a0 and r0 for each group, by dividing one on another. As it is visible, apparent velocities of space bodies it is good "lie down" on straight lines. Near to straight lines the title of groups, for example is indicated: the sun(E) - Earth group of planets, and Jupiter(J) - satellites of Jupiter "jupiter" of group.

  It is interesting to consider numerical values V0:

Planet                 V0 km/sec        Planet              V0 km/sec

Neptune (J)        3.53                 Neptune (E)     45.39

Jupiter (J)           7.12                 Jupiter (E)         68.13

Saturn (J)           16.52               Saturn (E)        101.92

Sun (J)               27.80               Sun (E)            146.14

Uranus (J)          34.69               Uranus (E)       380.5

V0 "jupiter" and "earth" groups though correspond each other, but is unexpected in any way correspond with masses of their hosts. To be disassembled with this interesting phenomenon shall put values of quantum numbers:

Planet             "jupiter"           "earth"

Neptune             1,2                        4,5,6

Jupiter                1,2,3                     2,3,4,5,6

Sun                    2,3,4,5,6               3,4,5,6

Saturn                2,3,4,5,10             5,6,7,8,9,10

Uranus               4,5,6,7,9,11          35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43



Except for the Sun, the large quantum conditions correspond large V0, but on fig. 20.4 maxima on a distribution curve of large comets and asteroids are traced down to a quantum number 10 for Earth group (vertical thin arrows), and the quantum numbers of Jupiter group are quite possible up to values, large 10 for yet not unclosed "planets". In this case Sun in a list will move below than Saturn and the sequence completely will correspond to sequence for V0. To add in the Sun in this list it is not absolutely correct, but the justifying can be served by deep reliance of the unified mechanism of formation of space systems.

The absence of a correlation between mass of central space bodies and V0 of their satellite systems is additional affirming that the solar System (as well as other sidereal systems) was formed at the expense of affixing of planets already having almost off-the shelf satellite systems. They were shaped in interstellar medium in different conditions of relative velocities of a central body and flying by its potential satellites. If their velocity is rather great to form a system the satellites with large values of a quantum number (as for Uranus) can only, if this velocity is small, the system will be formed predominantly by bodies with low values of a quantum number (as for Neptune). Apparently, that the last case is more interquartile, therefore low values of quantum numbers most frequently meet. Therefore all bodies of a solar System having large quantum numbers (for example, comet with a large eccentricity), for sure arrived to us from apart, instead of from the proximate interstellar environment of the Sun. It brightly demonstrates to us Uranus with the satellite system. A phenomenon of Uranus to explain from orthodox stands practically it is impossible.

The reverse rotation of a satellite or planet demonstrates its capture practically in the whole kind. There is it as follows (fig. 21.5 as "from above" on a plane of a solar System 1-1):

The left-handed body m in a direction of arrow is gone counter-clockwise. Its own rotation happens in the same side, and the rotation axis is parallel an axis of a screw trajectory of a body. After capture of a body, its orbit evolves so that the direction of the gravidynamic orbital moment has coincided with by the gravidynamic moment of a solar System as a whole. As the rotation axis of a body saves the position in space, at the end of evolution of orbit the body m will be moves in a plane of an ecliptic in a straight direction, but the rotation around of a own axis will be the reverse. During evolution of orbit we shall watch at first large eccentricity and large orbit inclination to a plane of an ecliptic. Such parameters we see for Pluto, therefore, it rather recently is captured by a solar System. Gradually these values decrease, but the rotating axis of a body is saved in space; therefore captured bodies with reverse rotation are characterized by a large inclination of equator to orbital plane. This angle depends on an angle between an axis of a screw trajectory of a body before capture and plane of a solar System. If this angle is close to 900 (fig. 21.5а), an inclination of equator will be close to 1800, as for Venus. If this angle is close to 00 (fig. 21.5b), the inclination of equator to orbital plane will close to 900 and the body on orbit will to be moves "lying edgewise", as Uranus. Thus, the reverse rotation of planets or satellites indicates capture of these bodies bodily. The circumvolution of numerous satellites of Uranus in its equatorial plane in one side especially visually displays, that Uranus was captured together with a own satellite system formed in interstellar space.

Let's compare enunciated notions to the observation data on loss on the Earth of meteors. If the meteoroid is captured by a solar System from interstellar medium with zero initial velocity, it will be moves (at the end) on a circular orbit around of the Sun. If radius of orbit corresponds earth, the traveling speed on orbit of this body will make, as well as for the Earth, about 30 kms/sec. In a straight direction on this orbit the overwhelming majority of meteoroids and only minor quantity - in an opposite direction will be moves. Apparently, that the traveling speed of meteors to the Earth after will be zero, and towards 60 kms/sec. Apparently also, that the traveling speed of meteors in interstellar medium near to neighborhoods of a solar System can not in accuracy equal traveling speeds of the Sun on galactic orbit (250 kms/sec), i.e. they have some initial velocity before capture. "As the solar System is gone of rather interstellar medium with velocity of 20-25 kms/sec..." E.N. Sluta etc., Comparative planetology, "Science", М., 1995, page 17.

We can find what maximum relative velocity should be for an interstellar meteor, that it was captured, for example, on Earth orbit. For this purpose we shall equate its kinetic energy of a binding energy under the formula (21.5):


where rE - radius of orbit of the Earth.

From (21.12):                                                                (21.32).

The formula (21.32) displays, that into given orbit the interstellar meteor having initial velocity no more orbital (30 kms/sec for Earth orbit) can be capture which one sums up with orbital. In this case orbit of a meteor will be elliptical with an eccentricity close to unit, if in (21.32) to accept a sign of equality. Thus, the velocity of drop on the Earth of meteors already to belonging (captured) Solar System varies from 0 up to 30 kms/sec, if meteors moves in a straight direction and from 30 up to 60 kms/sec, if they moves backwards (towards to the Earth). If their velocity exceeds 60 kms/sec, the similar meteors, depending on their velocity, can be captured into orbit of Venus, of Mercury or hypothetical circum-solar planets in 1 or 2 quantum conditions or their capture is absolutely impossible. For earth group of planets radius of orbit of the first quantum condition is peer 0.6213×1012 cm. Substituting this value in (21.32), we shall discover V=146 kms/sec. In a straight direction these meteors will be moves in high layers of atmosphere with velocity of 146 kms/sec, and in backward with velocity of 176 kms/sec. It is necessary to consider similar meteors as the transit travellers, as they are not capable to capture and it is necessary to consider falling out them on the Earth as random "direct hit".

It is clear, that transit meteors is an extremely infrequent case, since their relative velocity is comparable to absolute speed of the Sun, i.e. they are the visitors any more not interstellar, and intergalactic medium. The above-stated reasoning are completely confirmed by observations.

"Wippl has notified about measurements of velocities 144 meteors. 15 of these meteors had velocities slightly more than 42 kms/sec... From 144 meteors observed by Wippl, in one case it is impossible to consider demonstrated existence even as one really of hyperbolic orbit". O. Struve etc., Elementary astronomy, М., 1966, page 188.

"Incidentally same meteor shower has enabled Hey, Parsons and Stewart for the first time to determine velocities of meteors on hyperbolic reflections (radar method - V.K.). They have received value of 22.9 kms/sec, that will be well agreed with determined of visual observations by value of 23.7 kms/sec.

Among 11000 meteors recorded within 847 clocks of observations since December, 1948 till March, 1950, the MacKinly has found only 32 meteors, the velocities which one concerning the Earth slightly exceeded 72 kms/sec". Ibidem, page 190.

The falling out of meteorites on the Earth in a plane of an ecliptic "outside", from a direction, opposite from The Sun, west-to-east, i.e. after to motion and rotation of the Earth is most possible. As the earth's spin axis is inclined to this plane bevel way 23.50 that depending from season, the falling out of meteorites is most possible in a band of width from Southern tropic up to Northern tropic. In this connection is of interest a hypothesis expressed by my higher son about ancient planetary catastrophe as a result of drop on the Earth of a space body of the huge sizes in region of the Philippine sea (near to Northern tropic when in northern hemisphere there was a winter). In result (see, for example, the Small atlas of a world, М., 1998, page 188-189) on the Earth was formed grandiose an impact crater of radius of the order of 10000 kms enveloping practically half of terrestrial globe. The edges of a crater have formed Cordilleras in Northern America, the East-Pacific raising, South-Pacific rising, Australian-Antarctic raising and ridge Kergelen is East-Indian ridge. In a direction, opposite to shock, crust creased with formation of mountain systems Himalayas, Tibet, Tien-Shan and mountain ridges of Eastern Siberia. At the bottom of crater (the large part of Pacific Ocean) was formed a system of radial faults: Mendosino, Pioneer, Merrey, Clarion, Clipperton, Paskhy, Eltanin, and also radially directional systems of pacific islands. All impact area has become since then region of seismic and volcanic activity. It is doubtless, that the wreckages of earth rocks at this shock have got not only on moon, but also on Mars.

In summary this chapter is necessary to consider practically relevant problem of stability of orbital motion of artificial satellites of the Earth. This problem because of huge costs of their manufacturing and start is topical. Apparently, that for maintenance of long-lived and reliable operation of an artificial satellite, its orbit and orbital motion should be “natural”, i.e. the satellite should be in one of quantum states, orbit should lie in a plane of an ecliptic, the motion should be to direct, and satellite (or its part) to be gyrated in the side of motion. All these requirements simultaneously it is impossible to satisfy, but to be aimed to this it is necessary, if not we want to lose a satellite “on unknowns to the causes”.

The century riddle of structure of a solar System is resolved.

Mankind there are a lot of centuries unsuccessfully attempted to understand, why the solar System is arranged so, instead of differently. Here this problem is resolved with what I congratulate mankind.

In chapter 11.2.5 is shown, that the product Vr = ? for a free space body is determined only it by gravidynamic self-effect and remains to a constant at orbital motion after capture of this body. Here we shall take advantage of the formula ( and table from this chapter. Mean («standard») value /n 0.92×1019 cm2/sec for terrestrial planets. Average value /n 4.82×1019 cm2/sec for planets of jupiter’s group. Then the formula ( can be copied so:


where  - «standard» value . By substituting these values in (21.33) for earth’s and of jupiter’s group, we shall discover radiuses of orbits and, accordingly, orbital velocities in the first quantum condition:

,                                             (21.34),

,                                              (21.35).

Substituting numerical values in (21.34) and (21.35), we shall receive:

=0.637×1012 cm, =14.44×106 cm/sec; =17.5×1012 cm, =2.75×106 cm/sec. Now it is possible to substitute these values for calculation of radiuses of orbits and orbital velocities of planets earth’s and of jupiter’s group:

rE=0.637×1012×n2, VE=14.44×106/n; rJ=17.5×1012×n2, VJ=2.75×106/n.    (21.36).

In table 21.1 the outcomes of idealized calculation and substantial values of radiuses of orbits and orbital velocities of planets are shown.


Table 21.1.



Quantum condition

Mean spacing interval from the Sun, 1012 cm

Radius of orbit computed, 1012 cm

Mean speed of orbital motion, 106 cm/sec

Orbital velocity computed, 106 cm/sec
























































Though the computational and observed parameters of planets differ, but it is necessary to mean, that these parameters step-by-step change. Therefore design values demonstrate the future characteristic of planets. For example, the Earth in due course will be eliminated from the Sun, approximately, on 10 millions kilometers, and Venus will approximate, approximately, on the same value.

It is interesting to learn radius of a screw trajectory of a planet in a free condition before capture. Apparently, that it will be in n2 more being of radius of orbit. For example, the Earth had radius of a screw trajectory in a far space in 25 times more its orbital radius. Some bodies of a solar System have a quantum number 10 and more, therefore, radius of their screw trajectory in a free condition in 100 and more time exceeded observed.

The product Vr for planets of the order 1020 cm2/sec, and for satellites of planets on 5 orders is less. It means only one - position of satellites of planets arise from of secondary capture. At primary capture of space bodies by a solar System they are arranged, approximately, as planets pursuant to density and quantum condition. Thus have Vr approximately applicable to the proximate planet. As the relative velocities of potential satellites and planet-host are insignificant and, besides they is close to each other, at secondary capture and formation of a satellite system Vr of satellites will be on some orders less. Thus, the solar System (as well as any other sidereal system) is reshaped at the expense of primary capture of planets and secondary capture of satellites. The mechanism of secondary capture is completely similar to primary capture, therefore constitution of satellite systems repeats a constitution of a solar System in a miniature. It is interesting to mark, that bodies, enough far arranged from a planet, have negative relative velocity (less speed of a planet), therefore can be grasped into satellite orbit with a backward motion and rotation of a satellite.       

In conclusion of this chapter it is possible to laugh at the orthodox astronomers, which one recently «interdict» to Pluto to be called as a planet. Fortunately, he about it still not knows.

Comments of the author to chapter 21:

1. Power analysis of capture.

I am given thanks to Serge Alekseev for a fruitful controversy about a problem of capture as a result of which one I, at last, itself has understood essence of this problem. At infinite spacing interval between a central and capturing body the energy of a system is peer to zero point. During capture the capturing body on a spiral approachs with a central body. Thus the attractive force is inversely proportional to a square of spacing interval between bodies because of operation of law of a universal gravitation, and the centrifugal force of a repulsion is inversely proportional to a cube of spacing interval between bodies because of operation of law of preservation of an angular momentum. In outcome on some spacing interval from a central body these forces are counterbalanced and the capturing body starts to move on a steady circular orbit, since the further approach of bodies becomes impossible. Thus half of gravitational energy by obtained system is consumed for a repulsion from a central body, and the stayed half makes bond energy. In outcome the system as a whole again has a zero-point energy, as well as on infinite spacing interval. If to esteem energy only of captured body, its positive energy of a universal repulsion exactly is peer to negative bond energy, therefore its general energy too zero. At an inverse process of deleting of an captured body on perpetuity, we shall overcome only negative bond energy, but same on value the positive energy of a universal repulsion will promote deleting of a body. Therefore on perpetuity the energy of a system again will become zero.

If the capturing body on perpetuity already had some positive kinetic energy (less depth of potential well), it after capture will move on elliptical orbit with that exuberant energy with respect equilibrium, which one it had on perpetuity.

2. Main error of an official cosmology in a problem of capture.

The official cosmology, while, has not notion about screw motion of any free bodies. This achievement of new physics, which one asserts, that all bodies of the nature have an own angular momentum, which one is saved at their interplay. Let's see at the formulas (21.4) and (21.5). From them it is visible, that the potential well for an captured body will be formed in any case. If an angular momentum of this body large, a steady circular orbit (the bottom of a potential well) will be far from a central body, and bond energy, accordingly, is small. And on the contrary. The official notions recognize that a body before capture has not an angular momentum, i.e. is gone rectilinearly to a central body. In this case capture is impossible, since the transformation of half of potential energy of attraction to energy of orbital motion is impossible.

3. Physical sense of the famous formula E = mc2.

All material bodies consist of «elementary» particles: an electron, proton, neutron and some other. In section of the monograph «ELEMENTARY PARTICLES» is shown, that all they consist of orbital motion of components with speed of light, which one are retained on a circular orbit by gravidynamic attraction. Also in chapter 1 the concept of universal energy of a repulsion is entered, which one is gained by any body moved on a circumference. This energy numerically is peer to «kinetic energy» of a body, but as such actually misses so long as the body will not be eliminated on tangent to orbit. See at a figure 21.2. In application to elementary particles and with taking into account for virial theorem here half of energy of gravidynamic attraction Watt at formation of a particle is spent for bond energy of components   (mi c2/2), and second half on energy of a universal repulsion (mi c2/2). So that to eliminate components of a particle on perpetuity and to pay energy of components in zero point it is required to expend energy Ei = mi c2. The common rest energy (fixed) body will be E0 = m0 c2, and common energy of a driving body E = mc2, where m - relativistic mass of a body.


21.0.1 Elliptical orbits of space bodies




The circular orbits of space bodies are an extremely infrequent case, when the exuberant energy of a body is completely depleted, but it can take place only for infinite number of rotations on elliptical orbit, when on each revolution the part of an impulse of a body is transmitted to a system as a whole. Even the ideal circular orbit can be distorted under influencing of the different space factors: tidal effect of the neighbours, fall on a surface of meteorites and comets etc. Therefore all space bodies are actually in an exited state, having some exuberant kinetic energy in matching with its equilibrium value.

On a figure elliptical orbit of a body m rotated clockwise around of a massive central body M is shown. Spacing interval between points P (pericenter) and A (apocenter) of orbit is equal to a large axis of elliptical orbit (2a), and spacing interval between points 5 and 6 - small axis of orbit (2b). Spacing interval between focuses of orbit (point 1 and 2) is equal 2c. During a gradual transfer momentum of a body m to a system as a whole (actually, body M) there is a transformation of elliptical orbit in circumferential (is shown red colour), but at this transformation all orbits are intercepted in two inverse points 3 and 4 apart of radius of the future circular orbit - focal parameter of an ellipse p (see figure 13.2 in chapter 13). Thus, the evolution of elliptical orbit of a space body a little than differ from evolution of orbit of an electron in atom. Input datas for the subsequent analysis we have determined.

Apparently, that the law of conservation of angular momentum demands, that in any point of orbit at any time down to achievement of a circular orbit the angular momentum L bodies m concerning M should be saved invariable:

L=mVt×r                                                                  (,

where r - spacing interval from m up to M.

In spite of the fact that on each revolution the energy of a body m decreases, for one revolution it is possible to consider a total energy of this body in points of pericenter and an apocenter invariable. The total energy is piled from universal energy of a repulsion (chapter 1):


and energy of a gravitational attraction to M:


Therefore total energy of a body m will be:


Rewriting ( for pericenter and apocenter, equating them among themselves, after some transformations, we shall receive:


whence it is possible to receive the formula for precise account of an angular momentum of a body m on a position of pericenter and apocenter of its orbit (or value large «a» and small «b» semiaxis of an ellipse):


By substituting in ( numerical data for the Earth (E.N. Sluta etc. Comparative planetology, М., 1995, page 78) we shall find: L=25.974×1046 g×cm2/sec. If to take advantage ( and to substitute mean spacing interval from the Sun and mean orbital velocity of the Earth, we shall receive essentially distinguished value of an angular momentum of the Earth: L=26.632×1046 g×cm2/sec.

If we shall find a minimum of a function (, we shall receive, that thus the speed of a body m will be peer to the first cosmic velocity:


and body will take a circular orbit. If we shall make that most for spacing interval of pericenter of any elliptical orbit, it is easy to find ratio of energy of a body on this orbit (E) of radius r to energy of a body on a circular orbit (E0) of radius r0:


For parabolic orbit spacing interval of pericenter twice is less than radius of a circular orbit (focal parameter), therefore energy of such body twice exceeds energy on fixed orbit.

On ratio of radius of a circular orbit (focal parameter) to perihelion spacing interval r it is possible to find an eccentricity of given orbit:


Comparing and, we can record other expression for ratio of energy of a body on elliptical orbit to energy on a circular orbit expressed through an eccentricity of orbit, which one can be determined more precisely:


Eccentricity of Earth orbit now 0.0167, therefore exuberant energy of the Earth exceeds its energy in equilibrium state in 1.0167 times.

Allowing, that:


where p - focal parameter, and e - the eccentricity of orbit, is possible to count up an angular momentum of a body or radius of a equilibrium orbit, knowing these values.

The remaining details on motion of bodies on elliptical orbits can be read in chapter 21.

Comments of the author to chapter 21.0.1:

1. Bond energy of an electron and space bodies on elliptical orbits.

As electrostatic and gravitational interaction have not essential differences, for further we shall take advantage of the data of table 13.1. The major axis of orbit (2a) is peer to the sum of spacing intervals up to pericentre and apofocus expressed through relative units r0 (radius of a circular orbit):

 n/(n+1)+n/(n-1)=2/(1-1/n2)=2a                    (1).

But 1-1/n2=Etie                                                (2),

where Etie - bond energy on given orbit with a central body. By substituting (2) in (1), we shall find: 1/Etie=a or, passing to absolute values: E0/Etie=a/r0, whence:

Etie=(E0× r0)/a                                                   (3).

Bond energy on any elliptical orbit appears inversely proportional semimajor axes of this orbit, since product E0× r0 it is identical all orbits.


21.1. That instigates earthquakes


When we viewed orbital motion of an electron in a hydrogen-like atom, we have found out that elliptical orbits are intercrossed with parabolic orbit and circular orbit in two opposite points apart of focal parameter from a principal focus of orbit. In these points component the velocity, directional to focus or from focus are received with maximum value. This component is peer to zero point for strictly circular orbit and points of a perihelion and aphelion of orbit of the Earth. Making the same mathematical manipulations, which one we made at a conclusion of centrifugal velocity for an electron in a hydrogen-like atom and allowing the formulas, reduced in table 13.1, it is possible to record:


where: e - eccentricity of Earth orbit (e=0.0167) and  - binding energy of the Earth and Sun, if the Earth would have a circular orbit:


Is received similarly to formula (2.4), G – the gravitational constant, m - mass of the Earth, M - mass of the Sun, a - product of a mean orbital velocity of the Earth on mean distance from the Sun. By substituting (21.1.2) in (21.1.1), we shall discover value Etie=2.651386∙1040 ergs, and Etie0=2.652129∙1040 ergs. It is understandable, that the actual binding energy of the Earth with the Sun is less because of some exuberant mechanical energy of the Earth calling not circular and elliptical orbit. It is possible to consider this exuberant energy as:


where Vc - velocity, directional on radius - vector to a principal focus. The numerical value of this velocity from (21.1.3) is equal 499 m/sec or, approximately 0.5 kms/sec.

Thus, on each revolution around of the Sun in perihelion (January 3-4) and in aphelion (in by the beginning of July) the components velocities, directional to the Sun and from the Sun are peer to zero point. In a start of April the Earth passes one point of focal parameter and component velocity from the Sun is maximum, and in a start of October this component is directed to the Sun and too is maximum. Allowing, that the core of the Earth has enormous inertia and, as a yolk in an egg, rest in magma, at acceleration and inhibiting action it attempts to fall behind or, on the contrary, on inertia prolongs to be move to the Sun. Thus it induces deformation of earth shells and instigates reset of the previous pressure of earth crust or creation new. Allowing, that after passage of a perihelion the velocity up to 0.5 kms/sec accrues faster, the vernal earthquakes on the Earth should result in to more strong catastrophes, than autumnal. Especially strongly described effect should be watched for a Mercury with a large eccentricity of orbit, and also for satellites of planets with large eccentricities.

Tidal effect.

Except for slugged motion of a core of the Earth all mobile shells participate in this motion: atmosphere, hydrosphere and earth crust. On these motions tidal effect of the Sun and Moon also is superimposed. If the tidal motions of atmosphere and hydrosphere practically do not leave consequences in states of stress of earth crust, and influence only ocean and atmospheric flows, the tidal motions of the  earth crust do not remain without consequences in sense of provoking of earthquakes. Thus, it is possible to draw a conclusion, that the tidal effect boosts instigating earthquakes in April in night time, when the Earth leaves from the Sun and in October in daylight, when the Earth comes nearer to the Sun and the inertia is exhibited to the greatest degree.


21.2. Trajectories of bodies at capture and gigantic atoms




In the monograph is shown, that all free bodies move on a screw trajectory. It concerns, as to bodies of a microcosmos, and macroworld. As the electrostatic interplay is similar to a gravitational interaction because of an identical kind of the formulas of a law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law, for a determinancy, we shall esteem here gravitational interaction shown on a figure 21.2.1.



The trajectory of a capturing body is shown from a direction, perpendicular axis of a screw line. As approaching to central body radius of a screw trajectory decreases, and the speeds tangential and translational motion are augmented. Thus these speeds remain equal one another. In the issue body appears captured on a circular orbit with parameters:


where: r0 - radius of orbit, =Vr, where V - tangential velocity on a coil of a screw trajectory of a body, r - radius of a coil, M - mass of a central body. Bond energy with a central body W0 expresses by the formula:


where: G - gravitational constant, m - mass of a capturing body.

From a figure 21.2.1 it is understandable, that the orthodoxes, while, do not imagines an actual trajectory of a body at capture.

 On a figure 21.2.2 the trajectories of bodies on last coil before captue are shown. Digit 1 shown a direction amounting with a direction an axes of a screw trajectory the angle =450. All bodies having on perpetuity zero forward speed after capture, will forms a circular orbit, the plane by which one is inclined on an angle more than 450 to an axis of a screw trajectory. With increase of a tangential velocity on perpetuity (increase a) this angle grows, radius of a circular orbit also grows pursuant to the formula (21.2.1). These trajectories are indicated by red colour (2,3,4). If at the same tangential velocity to augment forward speed of a body by perpetuity, after capture there is elliptical orbit, the eccentricity is proportional to which one translational (kinetic) energy of a body on perpetuity. The plane of elliptical orbit makes with an axis of a screw trajectory an angle less than 450. These trajectories are indicated by cyan colour (5,6,7,8). If this energy is peer to depth a potential well pursuant to the formula (21.2.2), the eccentricity becomes to equal unit and the capture is impossible. The capturing body on a parabolic trajectory again leaves in perpetuity.

Capture shown on a figure 21.2.1 we shall call as rigid capture. At such capture radius of a circular trajectory is minimum, and the bond energy with a central body is max. With increase  radius of a circular trajectory is augmented, and the bond energy with a central body decreases. Such acquisition we shall call as mild capture.

Gigantic atoms.

The analysis of different versions of gravitational capture allows with success to transfer conclusions of this analysis on an electron capture by atom. In particular, us the mild electron capture will interest. Imagine, that we not permit to atom to capture an electron by version of rigid capture, at which one at the expense of an electrostatic attraction of an electron to a positive ion the screw trajectory of an electron considerably decreases in the sizes. If to realise mild capture, obtaining gigantic known atoms is possible. These atoms, by dimensions from normal up to rydberg of atoms, will be stable as against last because the valence electrons in them have a unique value of an angular momentum , instead of multiple, as in rydberg atoms, from which one get rid at any capability. For implementation of mild electron capture it is necessary them to hold by an external electrical field, which one accelerates a positive ion and the electron brakes. If to pick up the conforming initial velocities of ions and electrons, the mild capture can be executed at minimum closing velocity of an electron with an ion. Thus radius of a screw trajectory of an electron will be same large, as for a free thermal electron, accordingly, radius of a circular orbit of a captured electron will be same large. In chemical relation production of gigantic atoms is of interest, for which one all valence electrons are captured by means of mild capture.

Production of gigantic atoms and the synthesis from them of gigantic moleculas opens indeed fantastic outlooks before chemistry, medicine, biology and technology. The capability of obtaining of any given parameters of orbits of captured electrons is boundless dilates these outlooks.

Let's consider, as an example, activity of a power accumulator on the basis of gigantic moleculas of hydrogen. Let's suspect, that the vessel by volume of 100 liters is filled by such hydrogen at normal conditions. At some small heating of a part of gas the gigantic moleculas of hydrogen will begin to dissociate on gigantic atoms of hydrogen, and last to be ionized, being disintegrated on protons and electrons. Electrons we shall let in an external electric network and is return in a vessel, where they again incorporate with protons with formation already of customary atomic hydrogen, which one will turn to normal molecular hydrogen. In all described processes the energy is excreted except for a minor initial thermal impulse for start. It is interesting to count up fund of energy in a similar power accumulator. Let's neglect the exuded electrical energy and thermal energy in reacting transformation of an atomic hydrogen in molecular. Let's consider, that this energy we have spent for control of a thermal mode of the installation, since it very much resembles a nuclear reactor and potentially is capable to result in potent thermal explosion. In 100 l are contained 100:22.4=4.5 mols of gas, or 4.5×6×1023×2 = 0.54×1025 atoms. At each interplay of a proton with an electron with formation of normal atom of hydrogen is excreted 13.6 eV of energy. The general energy release in this process will make 13.6×0.54×1025 eV or quantity of energy to equivalent incineration of 280 liters of gasoline (and weight of hydrogen in a vessel only 9 grams). Thus, the power accumulator will convert «gigantic» hydrogen in ordinary in ecological clean process. Naturally, that the obtained energy at a plant on production gigantic atoms should be expended.

In a pressurized vessel charged by gigantic moleculas of hydrogen at large pressure under operating of an electric spark there is an instantaneous transformation of gigantic hydrogen in normal to such energy release, which one is unapproachable at usage of any known explosives.

Basically, any gigantic atoms can be used for welding, knife cut and meltings of any materials, including, and in space conditions also.


21.3. Energy balance at change of a satellite orbit


This chapter is written with the purpose to help to the readers clearer to understand, that occurs at attempt to change orbit of a satellite.

From equality of attractive force of a satellite to a central body and centrifugal effort for any equilibrium circular orbit the formula is fair:


where: V - orbital velocity, G - gravitational constant, M - mass of a central body, r - radius of orbit.

Let's multiply both parts (21.3.1) on m/2, where m - mass of a satellite:


The left-hand part of an equation (21.3.2) represents potential energy of a universal repulsion (chapter 1), therefore it is convenient to record (21.3.2) for a low-altitude orbit 1 and high-altitude orbit 2 and to find a difference of universal energy of a repulsion Erep for these orbits:


The equation (21.3.3) demonstrates, that the difference in energies of a repulsion for two orbits makes equally half of difference of attraction energy to a central body. On a virial theorem for a steady dynamic system the potential energy of attraction is peer to the sum of potential energy of a repulsion and same bond energy. Therefore, second half of change of energy of attraction in (21.3.3) is spent for change of bond energy of a satellite with a central body. At transition of a satellite from a low-altitude orbit on high «kinetic» energy of a satellite (energy of a universal repulsion) proportionally decreases, the bond energy it with a central body and potential energy of attraction to a central body decreases. The energy conservation law demands, that these losses should be completely balanced by the makeweight of «kinetic» energy to a satellite for transfer it on more high-altitude orbit. Here there is an apparent paradox: We should speed up a satellite to reduce its orbital velocity on more high-altitude orbit. Thus the expended energy not only completely is compensatived, but also the part will be used at the expense of initial speed. For transfer of a satellite from a high-altitude orbit on lower it is necessary to make the conforming inhibition and again there is an apparent paradox: we have reduced an orbital velocity, and it, in the total, was increased on a low-altitude orbit.

Here it is necessary to add rectification. At attachment of speed to a satellite on orbit 1, it starts to move on elliptical orbit with pericentre in a point of the added speed, having exuberant energy. At motion from pericentre to an apofocus of orbit change of energy will correspond above-stated. If we want, that orbit 2 satellites should have become circumferential, we need to add in a point of an apofocus such speed, that it completely corresponded to the formula (21.3.1).