We are advert to a hydrogen-like atom figured on a figure 2.1.
It is known, that any system aims at a minimum of potential energy and on achievement it is taken with a stable state of equilibrium in a potential well, which one call as a ground state.
For potential energy of an electron we can record (using (1.5) for not so large Z, if the electron will move near to a multicharge core, instead of (1.5) it is necessary to apply (1.4)):
Let's substitute in (2.1) and we shall designate :
Differentiating (2.2) and equating the obtained outcome to zero point, that means a minimum of a function (2.2), we shall discover value of radius of orbit of an electron applicable to this minimum:
In the formula (2.3) electronic mass has taken a position, appropriate to it, in numerator, instead of in a denominator of similar expression under the theory of the Bohr and quantum mechanics.
By substituting (2.3) in (2.2), we shall receive electron-binding energy with a nucleus:
The physical sense of value is, that this product Vr for an electron in perpetuity, i.e. is appropriate in a mobile electron.
Let's calculate value from ionization energy of atom of hydrogen on (2.4). It has appeared equal 1.1576 cm2/sec, accordingly, the moment of momentum for a mobile electron will make . Naturally, that this value remain to a constant and for hydrogen-like and other atoms pursuant to a principle of conservation of moment of momentum. Precisely same value of an electron angular momentum we would receive, using the formula for bond energy under the theory of the Bohr or quantum mechanics. It is necessary to mark, that orthodox physics for a moment of momentum of an electron (spin) accepts the value . Is not known, how it will explain this antilogy (difficultly to skip experimental value!), but one this fact is capable completely to shatter constructions of a modern physics, since for it (as against new physics) has principled value by the whole or half-integer spin the electron has.
The electron, thus, is in a potential well and, being gyrated around of a nucleus, nothing can beam until will happen absorb energy with transition in an exited state, after wasting this energy on radiation, the electron again will take a ground state.
Here how the quantum mechanics attempts to explain stability of atom of hydrogen (you see it considers, that the potential energy of interplay of an electron with of atomic nucleus of hydrogen has a kind: , i.e. the potential well does not exist, and exists potential "abysm" and electron is obliged to fall on a nucleus). I quote under the book: "Physics of a microcosmos", "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1980, page 33:
"The Minimum energy of hydrogen atom can be found with the help of an indeterminacy relation. This ratio explains why the electron can not fall on a nucleus. If the electron is in area by the size r, that, according to an indeterminacy relation, dispersion in impulses will be of the order . Bound with it dispersion of kinetic energy . A total energy of an electron in atom of hydrogen . (Remark, that this expression completely coincides with (2.1) - V.K.). The closer electron to a nucleus is less its potential energy. But simultaneously kinetic energy of an electron grows (~1/r2), and is faster, than descends potential (~1/r). Coming nearer to a nucleus, the electron starts to move so fast what to fall on a nucleus can not (?)!. It on the average will be on such spacing interval from a nucleus, at which one its total energy will appear minimum (?)!. This spacing interval can be found under the general rules of definition of a minimum of a function". As we see, that here is formally made even, as at a conclusion (2.3) and (2.4), but thus prostrated not only sensible physical and mathematical sense, but also fundamental energy conservation law. As though electron near to a nucleus fast did not move, the destiny it is not determined at all by running speed. The sum potential and kinetic energy of an electron can not have a minimum, since it is constant, that requires an energy conservation law, therefore, derivation of a function of a total energy - incorrect operation. Apart from all it, on presentation of a quantum mechanics the considered electron is not gone at all (S-electron), since has not an orbital moment (see in that a source, page 35 and fig.16). The modern physics represents almost continuous "crazy quilt", in which one everyone "patch" is made in a similar way, otherwise make both ends meet are not reduced.
For explanation of the observed facts, the supposition is necessary that the mobile electron is gone on a screw line.
"The quantum Mechanics in modern handling recognizes that basically it is impossible construction of the theory of personal microprocess, that the theory of statistical combinations - ensembles identical micro formations is possible only". N.I. Kariakin etc. "Brief reference book on physics", "Higher School", М., 1962, page 380. Esteeming behavior of a separate particle, the quantum mechanics continually upsets this principle.
The reasons of such motion for any free bodies, including macroscopic will below be uncovered. Then those values of a magnetic moment of an electron and spin (which one here are meant as a mechanical moment), which one we assign purely to electron, receive other explanation. The experimental values of a spin will be connected to a moment of momentum on coils of a screw line, and the magnetic moment will be a consequent of such motion. The own magnetic moment and moment of momentum of a "fixed" electron is very small, that will be clear in section dedicated its structure. So the paradox, bound with a spin of an electron is simply removed. Now electron does not have necessity to be gyrated with speed in 300 times superior speed of light to ensure observed magnetic and mechanical moment. There is no necessity and in the term "spin", therefore we shall not misuse with this term. By swallowing in due time toxicant pill of a spin and absence of the orbital moment of S-electrons, modern physics doom them on valid death, and any attempts to squeeze this problem in frameworks of common sense, are unsuccessful. Everyone can be convinced of it, taking the job not preconceived to be disassembled in a heap of contradictory explanations of the given problem; it is not so much its making clear, how many finally complicating.
Most ridiculous is, that a modern physics, considering a spin by bound with inner rotation of an electron, instead of with an angular momentum on a screw trajectory, dumps from an ill head on healthy, asserting boundedness of the theory of the Bohr: "The Theory of the Bohr, excellent by explaining a spectrum of hydrogen, was not able to explain properties of a ground state of hydrogen atom (n=1) сферически-symmetrical distributions of a charge (differently there will be an angular momentum! - V.K.), absence of the orbital mechanical and magnetic moments, and also completely unsuitable to more composite atoms, begin helium". N.I. Kariakin etc. "The Brief reference book on physics", "Higher School", М., 1962, page 350.
The electron, moving on a screw line and "dressing" on a nucleus, on a principle of conservation of moment of momentum will not change value . It also explains apparent "absence" of the orbital and magnetic moments of an electron in atom that has caused of orthodoxes with dread to speak in general about motion of an electron on orbit.
In experiment of Stern - Gerlach through an inhomogeneous magnetic field the narrow bundle of atoms in a S-condition was skipped, when on presentation of a quantum mechanics the orbital moment of an electron should equal to zero point (electron cloud around of a nucleus is spherically symmetrical). Thus on a screen not one band applicable to not decomposed bundle, and two is watched. By metering value of cleavage, Stern and Gerlach have found that the magnetic moment of an electron is peer to one magneton of the Bohr. The quantum mechanics explains it by presence of "spin" - own angular momentum of an electron, but at spherically symmetrical distribution of an electron in atom the magnetic moment should always have it zero value even at presence of an own magnetic moment for an electron (one band). From the point of view of new physics the experiment of Stern - Gerlach confirms, that the magnetic moment of a mobile electron driving on a screw trajectory is peer to a magneton of the Bohr (mechanical moment of a impulse is peer ) and it remains to such on atomic orbit pursuant to a law of conservation of angular momentum.
Here it is necessary to pay attention on "overlapping" of electrons in atoms on modern notions. If the electrons in atom are introduced as electron cloud, these clouds are overlapped in multielectronic atoms and in this case are vague, whence each electron is known, with what part of a cloud it. Besides even in a hydrogen-like atom it is necessary to take into account interplay of miscellaneous parts of a cloud among themselves, but then at quantum mechanical calculations we shall not receive expressions (2.3) and (2.4), i.e. we shall conflict to experimental data. If also to take into account the power side of "spreading" of an electron and repeated "accumulation" of electron cloud in a particle at an atomic ionization, the inconsistency with experiment becomes blatant. Therefore it is necessary to speak about probability of presence of an electron in the given point of space (quantum mechanics is a statistical theory), esteeming an electron nevertheless by particle. But then there is an inconsistency with experimental data of "absence" of an orbital moment of S-electrons, which one are better for presenting by a "fixed" cloud. Therefore quantum physics is capable simultaneously to consider an electron both particle and "cloud" being not confused by at all such nonsense. Applying of the term "wave function" instead of the term "cloud" basically nothing changes. As an example the quotation from the book K.P. Belov, N.G. Bochcarev, Magnetism on the Earth and in space, "Science", 1983, page 31: "The reasons it are clear - for the majority of molecules an expansion and density of electron cloud on miscellaneous directions are various", and in following the paragraph: "It is possible to explain this data from the supposition, that under operating of a magnetic field in aromatic connections there are spaceless currents along all system of connections which are forms a ring. Differently, the part of electrons of a molecule is capable freely to run round of ring".
The modern physics as a matter of fact disclaims a scientific method of knowledge, as depending on momentary profit can use classic notions or notions of a quantum mechanics, to esteem only wave aspect or only corpuscular properties of a particle, with ease adapting the views under the new experimental and own theoretical data. Judgement of the S. Weinberg, American physics - theorist, one of the creators of the unified theory of electromagnetic and gentle interplays: "Problem physics - to work out a simple view on natural phenomena to explain huge set of composite processes from the unified point of view on the basis of several simple principles". "Chemistry and life", № 4, 1983, page 19. This advice the modern physics does not use, fast complicating ample simple initial hypotheses, that speaks about an inaccuracy of initial hypotheses.
The wavelength de Broglie gains simple physical sense, as a step of a screw line (compare to official science).
"If in classic physics it is meant, that the motion of each particle obeys to the deterministic laws and it can precisely and uniquely be forecast, and the probabilistic description is applied to set of particles, to which one it to make is difficult mathematically, the quantum mechanics asserts principled impossibility of the precise description of motion even one particle. In it the waves of the de Broglie cannot even be interpreted, as waves of probability, since its for some points of space accepts negative values. How for the first time was shown by the Born, arising here difficulties testifying to steep distinction between the probabilistic description in classic and in a quantum physics, it is possible to eliminate if to accept, what under the wave law not probability, and certain value varies (?)!, called by a probability amplitude and denotatum (x,y,z,t). This value call also as wave function. The probability amplitude should be complex, and the probability w is proportional to a square of its module: w~||2. The wave function acts in a quantum theory how a majority carrier of the information and about corpuscular (?)! and about wave properties of a system. Offered by the Born explanation of the de Broglie’s waves eliminates their comprehension as classic waves of a matter. Linking, for example, with a mobile electron the plane wave, not necessary is to understood with it so, as if the electron "is spread" on huge area: actually it means (?)!, that though the electron prolongs to act in the theory as dot object, probability to find out it in any of points of space is identical". "Physics of a microcosmos", "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1980, page 17. As we see here and in further, the modern physics prefers "to eliminate difficulties" instead of revision of the fundamentals.
Recording expression of a wavelength de Broglie through forward speed of a particle and circumference through a tangential velocity V:
where T - period of revolution.
By multiplying both parts (2.7) on V, we shall receive:
By recollecting, that the experimental value of a mechanical moment, definite on electron-binding energy with a nucleus makes , whence:
Comparing (2.9) and (2.8), we come to a conclusion, that the free particle is gone in such a manner that its translational and tangential velocity on an coil of a screw line are peer. This conclusion is a consequent of a principle of an equal energy distribution on degree of freedom. Then from (2.7) follows, that radius of a coil of a screw line is inversely proportional forward speeds of a particle:
Recording: and by sectioning both parts on , we shall receive: , where: , and , therefore:
This outcome speaks that the wavelength of the de Broglie is peer to a circumference of normal section of a screw line or length of orbit, in case of a bound particle. In a quantum mechanics consider, that on steady orbit in atom integer waves of the de Broglie is stacked ("Physics of a microcosmos", "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1980, page 121). Thus, at first, contradict own notions (this statement it is possible to formulate so: "on steady orbit the integer of probability amplitudes is stacked", that obvious bosh). Secondly, enter in an inconsistency with a law of conservation of angular momentum, since consider its as aliquot . New physics is strict honour the fundamental laws, therefore knows, that only one wave of the de Broglie are connected to any body, and length it depends on a running speed. A discontinuity of an electron conditions in an excited atom it explains by other reasons.
Thus, all parameters of a screw line, on which one moving free particles, we have defined.
In a de Broglie formula: the constant of the Planck as a matter of fact is not present. In numerator there is a moment of momentum of a particle on a screw line. It is identical to miscellaneous particles, that confirm experiments, therefore official use by this formula for definition of a wavelength of a particle depending on its mass is incorrect. This formula will give exact values of a wavelength de Broglie only for particles with an identical angular momentum on a screw trajectory and equal . For example, new physics considers, that the angular momentum of an electron and photon is identical and is peer , and official physics, accordingly, and . Nevertheless, for calculation of a wavelength of an electron official physics substitutes in a de Broglie formula not , and and receives, naturally, exact value of a wavelength. By it explodes own fundamentals based on a half-integer spin of an electron. This problem can be enough easily solved experimentally for other particles, comparing experimental mass, "spin" and wavelength with value obtained from a de Broglie formula. As will be shown in the theory of elementary particles, their mass depends on summary value of an angular momentum of components. And for macro bodies the de Broglie formula can use only under that condition, if we in numerator shall substitute a huge moment of these bodies. Thus we shall receive a wavelength de Broglie of space scales, instead of paltry, what official physics receives, not understanding physical sense of a de Broglie formula.
The formula de Broglie demonstrates, that the free microparticles move not rectilinearly and uniformly, and on a screw line. Really, we shall multiply both parts of this equation on , where - frequency of de Broglie wave, then we shall receive: . But it is a speed of wave propagation, bound with a particle, which one is peer to speed of the particle. Then: . Apparently, that in the obtained equality its both parts mean a total energy of a particle. But on notions of official physics the total energy of a rectilinearly driving free particle is peer to its kinetic energy and still same there is no place to take. Therefore, the kinetic energy of a particle is piled from translational and tangential motion it on a screw trajectory.
Now we shall developed reasons causes free particles to move on a screw line. At first we shall conduct analogy. It is known, that in a homogeneous magnetic field the electric charge, generally, is gone on a screw line, the axis by which one coincides a direction of a magnetic field. If electric charge to cause to be gyrated around of an axis and if it not dot, the formed magnetic field substitutes external with that by outcome. The modern physics for many reasons considers an electron dot (Ibidem, page 479), differently there is a many of inconsistencies, though also this fact contradicts classic value of radius of an electron - fundamental physical constant. On the other hand, dotty of an electron results in other irresolvable inconsistencies, bound with perpetuities.
On the one hand asserts, that the notion about dotty of elementary particles is closely connected to the supposition about a capability ad lib precise measurements of spacing intervals and periods, on the other hand enter concept of fundamental length to leave from indefinitely large values (for example, an energy of field for dot particles) - divergences and here assert, that the introducing of fundamental length hides behind itself nondotty of particles (Physics of a microcosmos, М., 1980, page 197). Thus, the concept of fundamental length becomes at all redundant, since the capability of a precise measurement of spacing intervals and periods does not depend on the sizes of particles.
With increase of a running speed radius and step of a screw line decreases. In the formulas determining parameters of screw motion of a mobile electron there absent an electric charge, but there is a gravitational charge (mass). If we attempt to explain screw motion of an electron only by presence of magnetic interplay, bound with motion of electric charge, we shall be convinced that this interplay is very gentle and can not call such motion. On its score it is possible to relate only effects of the second order. There is an alone reasonable supposition. Similarly, how the driving electric charge will forms a magnetic field, and at its deceleration the photons are beamed the driving gravitational charge will forms a gravidynamic field - analog of a magnetic field, and at its braking the gravitons are beamed. Below we shall be convinced that the graviton separately does not exist, its functions are completely depleted by a photon.
That gravidynamic interplay to make appreciable, except for a high speed of proper rotation, is necessary large "the gravitational current", equal product of a particle mass on speed of its moving, i.e. impulse. The analysis of interplay of gyroscopes should answer on arising in connection with formation of a gravidynamic field problems. (The Clandestine explorers so-called "of torsion fields" as a matter of fact also are engaged by it). Artificial satellites of the Earth too good models, only it is not necessary to stabilize them from proper rotation, and on the contrary, stronger to untwist. While we shall use analogy to a magnetic field. The gravidynamic interplay becomes appreciable in a macroworld because of large weights and, in some cases, high speeds of motion, and in a microcosmos it is caused by huge running speeds, close to light. As we shall see later, the gravidynamic field augments the intensity not proportionally speeds, and is similar, how mass grows at nearing speed to light. Therefore all free particles of a microcosmos (as then we shall see, and macroworld too) moving on a screw line, as a first approximation, irrespective of electric charge. The explorers of a "torsion" field as a matter of fact deal with gravidynamic.
At motion on a screw line the particle is in a potential well, therefore energy of universal repulsing and bond energy is peer to half of energy of attraction: , whence , and the gravidynamic attractive force to an axis of a screw trajectory is always peer to centrifugal force: .
Thus, we can make a major conclusion: the wave-corpuscle dualism of bodies is motion them on a screw line.
The indeterminacy relations of the Heisenberg and Schrodinger equations are corner stones of a modern physics. Let's look, that they represent from the point of view of new physics.
As microparticles moving on a screw line with vector of an angular momentum, directional along motion and equal , and the tangential velocity of motion is peer translational, we can clear up physical sense of an indeterminacy relation of the Heisenberg.
Lengthwise axis Z of screw line of a particle trajectory we shall see a circumference figured on a figure 2.2.
Let's record expression for an angular momentum of a particle concerning an axis of a screw trajectory:
The projection of velocity vector V, for example, on axis X varies from zero point up to V, therefore:
and the projection of a radius-vector r varies from r up to zero point, therefore:
Substituting (2.14) and (2.13) in (2.12) and allowing, that mVx = Px represents a projection of a impulse of a particle to axis X, we shall receive: . At substantial measurements this product will be always more, i.e. to correspond to an indeterminacy relation of the Heisenberg:
From a conclusion (2.15) it is completely clear, that it is simple other record of the formula (2.12), i.e. indeterminacy relation of the Heisenberg - fiction. It is a law of conservation of angular momentum and anything more. The sign is “more” in the formula (2.15) - latent violation of this law and it appeared from misunderstanding of an essence of a law of conservation of impulse or from large desire to extend a field of scientific speculations.
"The quantum Mechanics, allowing calculating only probabilities, is the theory statistical. For check of its conclusions it is necessary to deal with very large number of identical systems, so-called quantum ensembles" (N.I. Kariakin etc. "Brief reference book on physics ", "Higher School", М., 1962, page 382).
The physical essence of a reduced mathematical exercise is that we have exchanged a motion picture of one particle by a statistical motion picture lengthwise axis Z of set of particles with a miscellaneous phase of motion.
In this case presence of a concrete particle in any point of a trajectory is equiprobable. Therefore, if we in experiment shall be photons (electrons) one behind another to skip through a diffraction grating strictly on one line and in one phase of motion, instead of a common diffraction picture on a screen, when each photon (electron) falls with miscellaneous probability in miscellaneous places of a screen, we shall watch hit of particles in the same place of a screen and determinism in science again will triumph!
The quotation from the book A.I. Veinik "Thermodynamics", "Higher School", Minsk, 1968, page 435: "Are necessary to be surprised of titanic intuition of the Einstein, more than 30 years struggling with that development trend, which one was accepted by a quantum mechanics at his life: "... I... incessantly searched for other path for the solution of a quantum riddle... These looking ups are conditioned deep, principled nature by dislike, which one to me inspire with a fundamentals of a statistical quantum theory". The Einstein acted against a principle of uncertainty, for determinism, against that role, which one in a quantum mechanics assign to the act of observation (influencing of a measuring instrument), etc., owing to what was even disclaimed by some friends. In 1947 he wrote to Max Born: "In our scientific views we were advanced in antipodes. You trust in the god, playing in a bones, and I - in full regularity in a world am objective arrant…", "Of what I am solidly convinced, so it that, eventually, will stay on the theory, in which one regularly bound will not probabilities, but facts..."".
From a conclusion (2.15) it is clear, that if we do not know an initial phase of motion of an electron, we shall fail at any moment to tell, where there is an electron in a plane, perpendicular axis of a screw trajectory. But, knowing speed of its motion, completely precisely we shall defined passed by an electron a path on an axis (Z) of a screw траектории. The modern physics concerning uncertainty of motion of an electron in a plane, perpendicular of traffic route at all can not tell anything intelligible. By an indeterminacy relation of the Heisenberg it as a matter of fact records a moment of momentum on a traffic route, i.e. the electron at motion " somersaults through a head" and is necessary how to explain this physical nonsense. Here there is also mathematical nonsense - motion of a body with an angular momentum probably, at least, at once on two coordinates (in a plane), instead of on one line.
The system in a ground state can exist indefinitely long, therefore on an indeterminacy relation E=0 in this condition. Therefore in a ground state x0, and impulse p. As the energy of a particle is directly connected to its impulse, E, i.e. dispersion of energy in a ground state should be peer to zero point and simultaneously unrestrictedly is great. This example of an inconsistency speaks that the true physical sense of an indeterminacy relation to a modern physics is unknown.
Suming up said, it is possible to mark, that new physics has more rights, than orthodox, on indeterminacy relations of the Heisenberg, since it uncovers their genuine physical sense, is simultaneous strongly limiting their applying. The motion of free bodies not on a straight line, and on a screw line also is that "latent parameter", the Einstein dreamed of which one to finish with a principle of uncertainty.
"If will be ever demonstrated, that the principle of uncertainty is incorrect, we should expect full modification of the physical theory". J. Marion, "Physics and physical world", World, М., 1975, page 609.
If uncertainty of the Heisenberg eventuates of statistical consideration of motion of particles of a miscellaneous phase lengthwise axis of their screw trajectory, the Schrodinger equations will be outcome of the same consideration from any direction, perpendicular axis of a trajectory. As the tangential velocity is peer accuracy to forward speed of a particle, the projection of a trajectory to any plane parallel an axis of a trajectory, will be a sinusoid, the scale by which one is inversely proportional of this speed. As a whole, the Schrodinger equations can not be deduced from any laws of physics, therefore itself it is considered as "law". An equation of the Schrodinger for an electron in a one-dimensional case (when potential energy P and function do not depend on coordinates Y and Z): , where - it is not known as is a function of coordinate x and time t. The square of an absolute value it ||2 is a probability density of an electron presence in the given area of space, , h - constant of the Planck, m - electronic mass.
The main body of this equation can be obtained from an equation of distribution of a harmonic oscillation, in which one have squeezed kinetic energy of a particle and have added a de Broglie formula depicting wave properties of particles, supposing, that by such primitive image it is possible to permit a problem of a wave-corpuscle dualism. The Schrodinger has added to this salad also potential energy of a particle, by making its "law". On the listed basis, orthodox physics considers a Schrodinger equation completely depleting a wave-corpuscle dualism of particles, though, as a matter of fact, it describes only wave aspect of this dualism, despite of the fact that the particle mass enters in it. "Illegality" of a particle mass in this equation visually is exhibited in relativistic area of speeds, where m is a function of speed. If this functions to put instead of mass in a Schrodinger equation, it will become inapplicable. For this case a Schrodinger equation substitutes by an equation of the Dirac, which one eventuate in essence of other theory. Besides the Schrodinger equation is basic inapplicable to motion of a separate particle, since at all can not forecast its motion (for example, at a slit diffraction of separate electrons), therefore gives only statistical description of behavior of large number of particles. On this circumstance prefer to close down eyes, describing "motion" of a separate electron, for example, in atom. By adding here capability of obtaining of the solution of a Schrodinger equations only for some elementary cases, causes surprise the statement of orthodox physics, that the Schrodinger equation, in principle, correctly describes any cases of motion of particles. "The precise solution (Schrodinger equations) exists only for very simple problems, for example, harmonic oscillator, atom of hydrogen. But also they require very composite mathematical methods of calculus. The solution of more composite problems appears practically impossible". N.I. Kariakin etc. "Brief reference book on physics", "Higher School", М., 1962, page 411. The indicated pessimism is aggravated by that the Schrodinger equations is not compatible to Lorentz transformation laws, i.e. contradicts a relativity theory.
The quantum physics can not describe motion of an electron around of a nucleus (as particle restricted in space) and is compelled to esteem "electron cloud" (wave function). Two versions of the analysis both in this case are received contradicting experimental data. If the electron "is spread" in a cloud, in this case energy exuding at formation of atom of hydrogen should be considerably more ionization energy of atom, since at ionization it is necessary to collect "cloud" in one particle, overcoming Coulomb repulsing of parts of a cloud among themselves. The experiments demonstrate that the ionization energy of atom is peer accuracy to energy exuding at its formation. Besides, during formation and atomic ionization, we shall watch a violation of law of preservation of energy. On the second version the electron can be left by a corpuscle, but probability to find it on as much as large spacing interval from a nucleus is different from zero point, especially on such spacing interval, where the thermal energy of an electron is comparable to bond energy with a nucleus. In this case we should watch spontaneous ionization of gas and the activity of detectors of ionizing radiation will become impossible. And if to take into account and "tunnel" effect (in handling of quantum physics), not only spontaneous ionization indivertible, but also all lines of spectra should be purely bedaubed. Thus, mechanical mixing of corpuscular and wave properties in one equation do not decide the issue a wave-corpuscle dualism of microparticles. The tragedy of a modern physics is that it is compelled to sit at once on two chairs: to use classic notions about a particle, as restricted in space a physical body and is simultaneous about a particle, as to a wave - not restricted in space oscillatory process. Thus, not having clear notion, what such a wave-corpuscle dualism of particles, physics is compelled to use this or that party of a wave-corpuscle dualism, outgoing not from criterion of objectivity, and from criterion of "profitability".
The motion of particles on a screw line from any side, perpendicular axis of this line, is represented, as a monochromatic wave distributes on a direction of translational motion of a particle. Making with this wave the same manipulations, as at "conclusion" of Schrodinger equations, we shall receive just it. It gives the basis all true achievements of a modern physics (furbished from imaginary) with the full right to assign and new physics. The quantum physics in a modern kind requires radical revision, that is demonstrated by numerous unsuccessful attempts "to quantize" gravitation. That is, new physics passes in a quantum mechanics if to look at motion of particles not in "root", and from one side and is free to recur with mathematics.
Official physics considers that the quantum mechanics passes in classic mechanics in a case, when the wavelength de Broglie aims at zero point. It is possible, when is formal the constant of the Planck h0. Thus the Schrodinger equation passes in an equation of motion of classic mechanics, and the indeterminacy relation loses the restraining force. (Physics of a microcosmos, М., 1980, page 384). The physical sense of zero value of an angular momentum of a particle means, that its mass either speed or radius of a trajectory is peer to zero point.
From the point of view of new physics the decreasing of a wavelength de Broglie is equivalent to decreasing of radius of a screw trajectory and its step, i.e. increase of energy of a particle. At a wavelength de Broglie solicitous to zero point, mass and energy of a body aim at indefinitely large value at the same value of an angular momentum. As all free bodies moving on a screw line completely to take away in them an angular momentum physically it is impossible, though at its full absence they would become classic. Therefore with official physics it is possible to agree, that the motion of a particle will become classic at formal aiming of a constant of the Planck to zero point, only understanding under this constant an angular momentum of a particle. On the other hand, the classic rectilinear motion macrobody can be esteemed as motion of this body on a circumference with indefinitely large radius, i.e. with an indefinitely large wavelength de Broglie. Thus the angular momentum of such body will be indefinitely large, but energy and mass can receive any final value. Customary macrobodies have a wavelength de Broglie of space scales, therefore up to relativistic velocities it is possible to consider their motion practically classic. Thus, the stringent transition from new physics to classic is possible, and for a quantum mechanics is not present. The doctor M.L. Klebanov in the private letter to the author has given the fine analysis of the first Newton's law: "Besides pursuant to normal physical logic it is necessary to revise the first Newton's law about motion of free bodies in a blank space. It is the law of motion of a mathematical point in a mathematical blank space. By a Newton the law of inertia is formulated as the law of evidence, law of concrete experiment. And if empty physical space still is possible how to identify with a mathematical blank space, the free body in any way cannot be identified with a mathematical point, and it is impossible it to recognize as free, since it has mass by not free from itself".
Modern physics and quantum mechanics in particular do not trouble itself with looking up of internal inconsistencies and self-criticism. I shall result in only one example demonstrating, that the modern quantum mechanics is completely unsuitable for the description of atoms. As is known, the orthodox notions on the principle that behavior of an electron in atom determines a kind of a wave function determining probability of presence of an electron in that or diverse place of space around of a nucleus. As any wave function overlaps considerable spacing interval in a radial direction, the electron in miscellaneous places solved a wave function, has miscellaneous energy. At transition of an electron from one energy level on another it as a matter of fact from one random place of one wave function (the random value of energy) passes in other random place of the second wave function. Thus the atom should beam or to occlude photons not of strictly definite energy and we should watch broad absorption bands or a radiation that contradicts experiment - spectral lines very narrow. On the basis only of this inconsistency it is necessary to reject all theoretical constructions of a modern quantum mechanics.
The described hypothesis about motion of free particles on a screw line is alone and basic in this work. Together with the set up elaborations about motion of bodies on a circumference, it is enough of it to make radical revision of our notions, the small part which one is set up in this book.
Comments of the author to chapter 2.
1. Formula de Broglie and constant of the Planck. The orthodoxes do not understand physical sense neither de Broglie formula, nor constant of the Planck. The formula de Broglie - ordinary identical record of an angular momentum of a body. Let's record this identity: mVr = mVr (1.1). A right part (1.1) is replaceable on a constant of the Planck: mVr = (1.2). Let's multiply both parts (1.2) on 2 : mV=h. In the total we have received a de Broglie formula: =h/mV. From here follows, that the constant of the Planck - customary angular momentum of particles on a screw trajectory and for all particles it has identical value. The vivid example of misunderstanding by orthodoxes of sense of a de Broglie formula is, that they in a denominator of this formula substitute mass of macrobodies, receive an incredibly small wavelength of de Broglie and to those «demonstrate» absence for macrobodies of wave properties.
2. Forgery - reliable method of official physics.
Here it is necessary again to repeat the quotation, reduced in chapter 2: “Physics of a microcosmos”, “Soviet encyclopedia”, М., 1980, page 33:
«The Minimum energy of hydrogen atom can be found with the help of an indeterminacy relation. This relation explains, why the electron can not fall on a nucleus. If the electron is in area by the size r (1), that, according to an indeterminacy relation, dispersion in impulses will be of the order (2). Bound with it dispersion of a kinetic energy (3). A total energy of an electron in atom of hydrogen (4) ».
On an indeterminacy relation it is impossible to indicate the precise size of area of presence of an electron r (1), but only r, which one should be pasted and in (2), differently impulse (and energy) electron will become indefinitely large. Then in (3) and (4) instead of r there is r and the reduced calculations lose any sense. Thus, by means of forgery: r r receive that want to receive.
2.1. Screw motion of microparticles
In connection with questions of the readers, it is necessary in more detail to consider screw motion of microparticles and reasons of such motion on an example of an electron.
The angular momentum of an electron on orbit of the Bohr is peer to product of its mass on speed of orbital motion (in 137 times less speed of light) and on radius of orbit of the Bohr. In outcome shall receive value of a mechanical moment of an electron at orbital motion of an equal constant of the Planck as:
Now we shall eliminate an electron from atom. How the mobile electron will move? Apparently, that it will have some kinetic energy of translational motion, but its mechanical moment remain to those most, i.e. it will move on a screw trajectory:
where: me - electronic mass, V - tangential velocity on coils of a trajectory, r - radius of coil.
The conservation law of a mechanical moment of a body has the same high status, as well as energy conservation law, therefore it guarantees a screw trajectory in any case. On this trajectory the product Vr remains to a constant, that is visible from (2.1.2).
Thus, mechanical moment of an electron under the formula (2.1.1), which one the orthodoxes call «spin» and receive for it value in 2 times less, than on (2.1.1), any relation to an own mechanical moment of an electron has not, and attributes to its screw trajectory. An own mechanical moment of an electron we shall discover as a result of multiplication of electronic mass on speed of light with which one it is angularly rotated around of own axis and on classic radius of an electron. In outcome we shall receive value in 137 times less orbital moment or moment on coils of a screw trajectory:
where - fine structure constant. Therefore electron always has two constant mechanical moments, but, unfortunately, about it official physics does not guess.
The reason of screw motion is easy for understanding, comparing motion of electric charge perpendicularly to external magnetic field and motion of a gravitational charge perpendicularly to own a gravidynamic field. In both cases the charge is moving on a circumference under operating of force of the Lorentz or it of gravidynamic clone, directional to center of a circumference. The difference only that an electron, rotated with speed of light, creates along a own axis of rotation the greatest possible tension of a gravidynamic field (chapter 11.1) and the gravidynamic interplay becomes in 4.17×1043 times are stronger gravitational and has not equal in the nature. Therefore the gravidynamic clone of force of the Lorentz has such value, that urges an electron to move on a screw trajectory with Vr = 1.1576 см2/сек.
I want to furnish padding pleasure to those malicious tongues, which one scoffed at my statement what to result the experimental evidences of screw motion it is not required - them and so enough. Here I iterate this thesis, as in mine dead village it is possible to conduct only imaginary experiments. Lengthy tongue is not necessary for exact conclusions from stored experimental data, the short mind is necessary even.
I shall result in the evidences of screw motion of free bodies in a random order below.
1. From numerous experiments it is known, that «waves of de Broglie» for any micro particles are determined by the same formula:
If to section both parts of this formula on 2p, it starts a kind:
where - already it is impossible to call as «quantum of action» is a customary angular momentum of a particle, which one, by experiments for all particles is identical (this value call «spin» those who does not know its physical sense, and who attempts it to find out, clearness from the scientific literature will not receive). On definition of an angular momentum r means radius of circular motion of a particle with speed V, but with the same speed the particle moves translational, i.e. as a whole motion introduces a screw trajectory.
2. Numerical value very large, that it could be attributed to proper rotation of a particle, therefore artful orthodoxes and have called its «spin». An angular momentum of an electron, rotated around of an axis, (own angular momentum) we shall find, is similar (2.2.2), by multiplying electronic mass on its rotation rate (equal speeds of light) and on classic radius of an electron:
where - fine structure constant. Therefore own angular momentum of an electron in 137 times is less than a moment on its screw trajectory.
3. Now we shall calculate an angular momentum of an electron on orbit of Bohr, by multiplying its mass on radius of orbit and on speed of orbital motion (in 137 times less of speeds light). We again shall receive value , as it was necessary to expect under the requirements of a principle of conservation of moment of momentum. Thus, the angular momentum of an electron at acquisition into orbit of atom remains same most, as was on a screw trajectory.
4. In many places of the monograph is clearly shown, that the screw motion of particles describes all specific their wave properties, though with any by the present wave they irrelevant.
5. At the close analysis of all cases it is experimentally found of wave-corpuscle dualism of micro particles this property it appears to straight consequent of their screw motion.
6. The screw motion of particles correctly describes also such only wave properties, as an interference, diffraction and polarization, which one are not clear from the point of view of rectilinear and uniform motion adopted in modern science.
7. Outcomes of double-slotted experiment of Jung quite predictable, if spacing interval between slots does not exceed diameter of screw motion. If spacing interval will be more, the diffraction picture even of separate electrons will vanish. Is similar, if diameter of a foramen will be less than diameter of a screw trajectory, the particle any more can not penetrate into this foramen.
8. At an electron capture into atomic orbit or space body into orbit of a planet or satellite the product of a running speed of a body on radius of screw motion in a free condition completely also uniquely determinates a position of alone orbit of this body after acquisition. At even and rectilinear motion of bodies («inertial reference system») the orbit parameters after acquisition are determined in aiming spacing interval and running speed both these values are arbitrary, therefore formation of atoms and planetary systems is impossible. This argument completely disclaims the first Newton's law, quantum mechanics and relativity theory. Science roll up to such condition that of the theorists has become greater, than physical phenomena. Therefore each physical phenomenon has found set of explanations from verisimilar up to completely absurd. For example, at double-slotted experiment some «theorists» consider that in it the moment the Universe is bifurcated. Apparently, that for the first Newton's law, it is possible for a quantum mechanics and relativity theory rake together set of experimental endorsements, but they do not demonstrate to a regularity, and only one manifestative inconsistency is capable to demonstrate an inaccuracy of any theory. I wait from the readers of similar argument against new physics.
9. The formula for cross-section of dissipation obtained in chapter 10.2 on the basis of screw motion demonstrates cross-section of dissipation in 4 times more, than for rectilinear and uniform motion and coincides experiment.
10. We shall multiply both parts of the formula (2.2.1) on frequency:
but at classic even and rectilinear motion of a particle should be: E=mV2/2. The common energy twice exceeds translational energy of a particle because of the same contribution to energy of tangential motion on an coil of a screw trajectory.
11. Experimentally measured pressure of light (the formula 23.11) confirms motion of photons on a screw trajectory. In chapter 23 the absurdity of a conclusion of the exact formula of pressure of light by the modern theory is shown.
12. In chapter 3.4. The theory of a tunnel effect is given on the basis of screw motion of particles, which one adequately mirrors the conforming experiments as against official notions.
13. I shall result in the quotation from chapter 23.8:
“Here is necessary to make a quotation from the book modern English physicist G. Lipson «Great experiments in physics», М., 1972, page 73: «However exists an even more simple phenomenon, which one a hypothesis of a Newton (about corpuscular light - V.K.) can not explain - simultaneous reflection and refraction of light by a surface of a glass. The Newton has put forward rather fog idea about slight reflection and slight refraction: he has supposed, that the ray consisting of a set of corpuscles can in definite time be able, when it is easily mirrored, and then - in a condition, when it easily refracts, etc. With the help of phenomena of interference, which one we later shall consider, a Newton may to estimate spacing interval between these conditions, which one has appeared equal 1/89000 inches for red light. It makes 2.7×10-5 cm - not so far from half of wavelength of red light, as we now know». Now again look at a figure 23.8.1 to estimate genius intuition of a Newton, which one as a matter of fact has demonstrated not only corpuscular of light, but also motion of its corpuscles on a screw line. It is a pity that this guess was mislaid in a history of science and has remained dead neither Newton, nor other scientists. Differently we now had absolutely other science”.
Thus, the convincing evidences of screw motion of bodies for a long time exist, but the orthodoxes them do not note, all modern physics differently falls.
In science the fact is well-known, that often opposite notions about that or diverse phenomenon result in identical end results, that produces bitter controversies of the opponents. The example can be served by century dispute between the supporters of the wave and corpuscular nature of light, dispute between a system of Ptolemy and Copernicus and many other conflictings in the most miscellaneous areas of science.
The wave description of physical phenomena cannot be executed without of elastic medium (ether) in which one there is a wave process and is diffused by means of this elastic medium. Therefore description of wave phenomena in a solid, liquid and gas adequately mirrors the test datas and problems here does not arise. There, where the elastic medium misses, it is necessary to invent miscellaneous ruses to distribute the wave description and to these objects: empty world space (world ether in the miscellaneous fancy forms), internal space of atoms (wave functions of probability), fields (short-range interaction of fields by means of transfer of a disturbance from one point to other), electromagnetic radiation of the Maxwell (simultaneous oscillation magnetic and electrical field in an elastic medium). The wave description of world is fine is designed, since above it many generations of the known scientists worked, but main brake here it is necessary to have in stock an elastic medium. There, where it no or there are doubts in its existence, a field for critics there is opened.
In the formal-mathematical description of the world the elastic medium is not necessary any more. Record a wave equation and decide it for the diversified cases. Though in mathematical relation such description of the world perfectly, but the physical sense of mathematical manipulations is lost. Specially it notably in a quantum mechanics. As a consequence, the similar description it is easy to subject a severe critic. To be salvaged from of intrusive critics, it is necessary to invent completely fancy notions about a microcosmos, which one do not have conformity in a macroworld. Thus, the unity of the world is upset, that directly contradicts fundamental laws of universe. The absence of physical sense is the main unremovable brake of the formal-mathematical description of the world.
The corpuscular description of the world, basically, is a merit of Newton. Because of small number of the supporters of such description «have defeated» wave notions. The main brake for of corpuscular world was established by Newton, by formulating the law even and rectilinear motion of free bodies. This law has become force majeure for explanation of an interference, polarization and some other properties of light. Attempts to mate the wave description with corpuscular (wave-corpuscle dualism of microparticles) are originally doomed on a fall because of a principled difference between a wave and particle. The ether is not necessary for the corpuscular description of the world in any to the form, therefore photon, for example, billions of years not «being spread» can move in space, that is impossible from the point of view of the wave description of its motion. The main lack of the corpuscular description of the world consists in incompletness of official toolkit for such description. Only new corpuscular quantum physics has entered notion about originating of a gravidynamic field at motion of gravitational charges and bound with this fact by screw motion of free bodies. It has allowed to revise many fundamental rules of classic physics and quantum mechanicses and to realise a capability of the corpuscular description of the world to the full. Unfortunately, it has taken place after in heads of the scientists strongly was fixed paradigm, designed Einstein and fathers of a quantum mechanics. This paradigm had time knock home in heads of millions students and even of the homemakers. In outcome new scientific paradigm on the basis of new physics meets aggressive hostility. It, certainly, temporary phenomenon and the victory new paradigm in science is foregone, as was already repeatedly. It is a pity, that this the temporary interval, usually, exceeds temporary existence of the person in the land of the living, and orthodoxes permanently self-reproduction by conservative science.
The most correct definition of a spin of particles is given in the book «Physics of a microcosmos» under edition D.V. Shirkov, M., 1980.
«To explain this divergence of the theory with experiment it was possible with the help of the supposition made Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck in 1925 that the electron has one more internal degree of freedom - spin. According to this supposition, electron and majority of other elementary particles alongside with an orbital moment have still own mechanical moment of impulse. This own moment also call as a spin. The availability of a spin for a microparticle means, that in some respects it is look-alike to a small rotated whirligig. However this analogy only formal, since the quantum laws essentially change properties of angular momentum. The own moment, according to a quantum theory, can be for a dot particle».
Around of a spin orthodox science heap up set of absurd gamble, that is visible from the end of the reduced quotation.
In chapter 2 is shown, that the electron actually has two values of «spin», angular momentum on a screw trajectory or orbital moment in atom equal (not /2 !) and the own angular momentum in 137 times is less orbital (chapter 2.2). It is easy to count up an orbital spin by multiplying speed of an electron on orbit of Bohr on radius of this orbit and on electronic mass. On a law of conservation of angular momentum the orbital spin will be kept and for a mobile electron removed from atom. An intrinsic spin of an electron we shall find, by multiplying classic radius of an electron on speed of light and on electronic mass. A spin of free particles behind exception the neutrino has identical value . This direct consequent of a de Broglie formula:
checked for many particles.
The own spin of particles can be any. For example, the electron consists of two neutrinos, therefore angular momentum a free neutrino will be /274. In section of the monograph of «Elementary particles» is shown, that the particles can consist of many components, which one are gyrated with speed of light on a circular orbit of radius, close classic radius of an electron, and mass of these particles is proportional to the sum of absolute values of the moments of momentums impulses of components in a free condition. For example, for a neutral pion , consisting from an electron and positron (chapter 9.2) the general absolute value of an own angular momentum will be 2, i.e. mass of a pion will be more electronic mass, approximately, in 274 times. The value of an own spin of a neutral pion is problematic. If to believe official confirmations, that it is peer to zero point (probably, that the orthodoxes here do not make an error) to be come to recognize, that at own rotation in one direction of particles keeping equal quantity of a matter and an antimatter, their moments are directed to the counter sides (electron - positron in a pion or neutrino - antineutrino in a photon) and the general moment is peer to zero point, and together with it is peer to zero point and general magnetic moment. In spite of the fact that the components separately have mechanical and magnetic moment. These reasoning somewhat justify division of particles into fermions for which one the repulsion close-range is watched and bosons between which one the interplay practically is not watched.
Grand fanciful writers composes kind fairy tales for children and do not hide, that the fairy tale is a fraud and fabrication. The scientists too composes fairy tales and myths, but give them for true. It too fabrication and fraud. There is a very simple criterion on which one it is possible easily to define, whether perceive the scientists what speak about or conduct of the reader for a nose. When they perceive something, clearly set up a problem, which one you will understand also. But you will not find clear explanation, that such a spin, confused condition, «dark» matter and energy, exchange interaction, weak coupling, as is move a particle of a microcosmos, physical sense of the exclusion principle Pauli and many other things. If the truthfulness of the statement cannot be tested, on this field of miracles specially many swindlers collects, is among them and scientists.
Who saw virtual particles? Nobody saw, they are not observed, under the statement of orthodoxes. The very comfortable essential (as the god), is possible for which one, nothing risking, to explain any phenomenon. By indeterminacy principles of Heisenberg it is possible, with a sin in halves, to explain birth of a virtual particle having mass and, therefore, energy from nothing. Together with Heisenberg we shall shut of an eye on an energy conservation law. But whence charge for a virtual electron arises, contradicting a conservation law of electric charges? For it the indeterminacy principle does not exist. Now definition of period t=10-23 sec technically is possible. On an indeterminacy principle the virtual particle will have energy not less than 60 МeV. To produce, how much it can to break wood in a microcosmos, remaining not observed. On orthodox notions the separate virtual particle exists very short time so, what a violation of law of conservation of energy as though and no (?!). But the orthodoxes speculates and with «perfect vacuum», which one literally teem with virtual particles. Consequently, that on the average in each instant in the Universe there is an infinite number of virtual particles requiring for the existence indefinitely large energy, which one has arisen from nothing. To finish a situation up to full nonsense, it is easy to itself to present, that we moves in space, passing infinitesimal spacing interval for infinitesimal period. In this case our energy will become indefinite large and the fairy tale about virtual particles can be thrown out in a waste basket.
The experimental detection of wave-corpuscle dualism in a microcosmos has put official science in situation of an extreme bewilderment. It is impossible inverse properties of two miscellaneous objects (wave and particle) to mate in one object. To not be recognized in a scientific impotency, best, to transfer a condition of a bewilderment to the reader.
As voodoo, the orthodox starts to jump around of him, to beat in tambourine of a quantum mechanics and to maunder the spells: «As a primary principle the wave-corpuscle dualism bases a quantum mechanics and quantum theory of a field … light represents electromagnetic waves … supposition of the Planck about discrete nature of radiation … notion about particles of light - photons … outgoing from a relativistic kinematics, to photons the impulse had been affixed … de Broglie was assigned has marked a relativistic invariance of a ratio connecting four-measurement vector of an impulse-energy of a particle to a four-measurement wave vector … this supposition has served as a starting point of construction of a quantum mechanics in the form of the Schroedinger …
the description of microparticles with the help of state vectors subordinating to a principle of superposition is entered their probabilistic interpretation which has permitted to avoid of a formal logical inconsistency with corpuscular notions (finding of a particle simultaneous in several different condition) … in a quantum theory of a field pass from classic fields to quantum … the particles act, as exited states of a system (field) … the secondary quantizing … major development of wave-corpuscle dualism is a capability of emitting and absorption of particles as a result of interplay of quantum fields». (Physical encyclopedia under edition A.M. Prohorov. M., 1988, volume 2, page 464-465).
After such attack, the reader is immersed in a hypnotic condition and ceases something to think, the purpose is reached!
We can not go on official route and «to find the solution of an inconsistency by failure». Therefore there is a sense to consider two models of wave-corpuscle dualism, which one though as sobered of the reader. One model returns advantage to particles, and other - waves.
Model of a particle.
In this model the official notions recognize that a particle remains by a particle (local object moved in space). But the motion of a particle corresponds to the wave laws. That this model had the right to existence, it is necessary to enter any new unknowns of interplays making a particle to counteract to the first Newton's law. They to science, are not conducted yet.
Here opportunely to explain physical sense of wave-corpuscle dualism offered new physics, as the motion of any free bodies (including macrobodies) on a screw trajectory, cause by which one is originating of a gravidynamic field at motion of gravitational charges (weights). Thus, the notions of new physics not only update official model of a particle, but also diffuse wave-corpuscle dualism to all universe. Unfortunately, the ideas of new physics will penetrate into brains of die-hard orthodoxes through a long time because of total monopolism on true, but it is their problems.
Model of a wave.
In this model the official notions do not esteem a particle, as local object, and interchange with its wave packet, which one represents a superposition of flat simple harmonic waves with close values of frequencies and wave vectors.
On a figure 2.6.1 the wave packet is figured, as it is introduced by official physics. It has a definite position in space (as a particle) and at the same time «deliquesces» during motion in a dispersing medium, since in its the speed of wave propagation depends on its frequency. To this orthodoxes very much pleased, since it is possible to speculate about probabilistic dispositions of a packet and «to confirm» an indeterminacy relation of Heisenberg.
In this model orthodox voodoo prolongs uncouth dancing. We shall not repeat his delirium, and we shall stay on principal moments.
The waves in a discussed wave packet (which one can be of any parentage) are waves of the de Broglie. On official definition it is waves, bound with any driving microparticle reflecting the quantum nature of microparticles. (Ibidem, volume 1, page 330). You are satisfied with such explanation? I - no. Therefore I tender to see on «a wave packet» by other eyes. Is representable to itself, what is it is simple group of photons with close frequencies (parameters of a screw trajectory). Then all properties of this group, down to, so-called, phase velocity completely will correspond to properties of an official wave packet. Naturally, that the group of photons will be «to deliquesce» in a dispersing medium because of miscellaneous speed of their motion. The spreading of one particle, carriers a wave packet, contradicts an energy conservation law, since the bond energy of components of particles has huge value.
I hope, that now reader was freed from a condition of a bewilderment and has abandoned the company of orthodoxes.
In case of interplay of a «fixed» proton and electron with formation of hydrogen atom, the electron finds a proton, having energy it is less 13.6 eV. If the energy of an electron exceeds this value, the hydrogen-like atom does not arise, since the energy of an electron exceeds an ionization energy. The nature here will not deceive. However, it not absolutely correctly is here again opened a new field for researches. It is possible to urge an electron and proton to create atom of hydrogen at any speed (energy) of an electron, using modern engineering of a particles acceleration. For this purpose the electron, moved in a determinate direction, should «to catch up» a proton moved in that a direction. Thus the relative velocity of an electron should not result in ionization of arising atom of hydrogen, i.e. it is desirable, that they moved to this moment with identical speed. In this case electron on the screw trajectory will be gyrated around of a proton, is similar to a satellite around of a central body and we can take advantage of calculations of chapter 21.3. Parameters of a screw trajectory of a proton we shall neglect, since they almost in 2000 times are less in matching with an electron. The electronic mass does not vary so long as its tangential velocity will not reach speed of light, and radius of a screw trajectory will not become equal 386 fm (chapter 5.2.2). Therefore, up to this moment of the formula of chapter 2 will be correct. The arisen atom of hydrogen will prolong motion with speed of a proton, and the orbital plane of an electron will be perpendicular to this motion. At actuation in consideration of electrostatic interplay of an electron and proton the situation will be completely similar to transition of a satellite from more high-altitude orbit r1 on lower r2 with the conforming increase of a running speed on a low-altitude orbit, but with indispensable by preservation of an angular momentum of an electron, equal . Therefore for a not relativistic case it is possible to record:
where V1 - forward speed of a proton and electron, r1 - radius of a high-altitude orbit (radius of a screw trajectory of an electron before capture), and m0 - rest-mass of an electron.
Hereinafter us the relation r2 and electron-binding energy with a proton from a speed of translational of atom of hydrogen or from energy of a catching up electron will interest. Potential energy of an electrostatic attraction of an electron and proton:
On a virial theorem and pursuant to calculations of chapter 21.3 half of this energy will go on increase of potential energy of a universal repulsion, and second half on bond energy. Therefore bond energy numerically is peer:
The increase of potential energy of a universal repulsion is equal:
As an angular momentum of an electron always same :
, and (2.7.6).
By substituting (2.7.6) in (2.7.5) and by equating the obtained expression (2.7.4), after some transformations we shall receive:
where = 1.1556 cm2/sec for an electron (chapter 2).
For hydrogen-like atoms in a denominator (2.7.8) it is necessary to substitute nuclear charge Z.
Radius of a screw trajectory of a mobile electron:
By substituting (2.7.9) and (2.7.7) in (2.7.4) after transformations we shall receive the formula for electron-binding energy with a proton, coincident to the formula (2.4) of chapter 2:
For hydrogen-like atoms in numerator (2.7.10) it is necessary to substitute Z2.
Surprised, that the electron-binding energy with a nucleus does not depend on a running speed of a nucleus (if this speed not relativistic and the change of electronic mass can be neglected). Therefore atoms underway with a high speed do not change a radiation spectrum, only at the expense of Doppler effect it displaces as a whole in this or that side. With that, the sizes of atoms are reduced in a direction across their motions pursuant to the formula (2.7.7). This statement of new physics back to statement of a relativity theory. The graph of resizing of atom of hydrogen in velocity function of its motion is shown on a figure 2.7.1. It is constructed on a calculated formula:
In coordinates: speed (in parts from speed of light) - radius (in parts from radius of orbit of Bohr).
Angular momentum of a not relativistic electron:
where m0 - rest-mass of a particle.
The relativistic electron augments mass from a running speed:
The formula (2.8.2) though and not absolutely is exact (see chapter 5.2 and figure 5.2.1), but, approximately correctly describes change of a particle mass in all range of possible speeds. Let's substitute (2.8.2) in (2.8.1):
If in (2.8.1) Vr = = 1.1576 cm2/sec, in (2.8.3) products Vr does not remain constant with increase of a particle mass, the constant still has only an angular momentum on demand of a conservation law it, therefore Vr decreases. The forward speed of a particle V - argument, therefore reduction of this product occurs at the expense of reduction radius of a screw trajectory of a particle, that is conditioned by strengthening of a gravidynamic field with increase of driving mass. From (2.8.3):
In the formula (2.8.4) - is constant, we shall designate it as K. On a figure 2.8.1 the charts of change of value r/K for not relativistic particles (curve 1) and for a relativistic particle under the formula (2.8.4) (curve 2) are adduced depending on ratio V/C, where C - speed of light. From a figure it is visible, that the trajectory of a relativistic particle differs from sluggish at V/C > 0,2.
In chapters 2.7. and 2.8. the problems of creation of atoms of hydrogen are debated at interplay fast driving of an electron and proton. Here we shall consider a screw trajectory of a relativistic electron, the parameters of a screw trajectory of a proton in 2000 times are less, therefore conditionally we shall consider its motion rectilinear. Apparently, that the screw trajectory forms by own gravidynamic interplay of a particle, proportional particle mass and its speed of advance. As gravidynamic interplay most strong in the nature, at some speed by electrostatic interplay of a proton with an electron is possible to neglect. It concern speeds above «thermal». At first we shall find, as fictitious mass of «proton» Mf varies to supply given radius of a screw trajectory if to allow only for gravitational interaction of this mass with an electron. The mass equivalent electrostatic and gravidynamic of interplay is found in chapter 11.2.5. Then, knowing change Mf from speed, we shall find respective alteration of a fictitious charge of «proton» Zf.
The steady orbital motion of a space body will be realised only in the event that its orbital velocity V is determined from equalling of attractive force to a central body of mass Mf and centrifugal effort:
By substituting (2.9.2) in (2.9.1), after some transformations, we shall find, as Mf changes depending on value V/C:
Value of a constant = 0.52×1018 g.
The graph of change Mf from V/C is shown on a figure 2.9.1 in coordinates: V/C - Mf /1017 g.
The graph of change Zf is shown on a figure 2.9.2 in coordinates V/C - Zf /1023.
Pursuant to chapter 11.2.5 a mass equivalent of unit of electric charge 1.859×10-6 g. Thus they interact equally. By divided fictitious mass on 1.859×10-6 g, we shall find fictitious electric charge, which one could provide same radius of a screw trajectory of a relativistic electron. We have received so large values of a fictitious charge and fictitious mass, that it is possible to forget about electrostatic interplay and the more so about a gravitational interaction in matching with by gravidynamic interplay at such running speeds.
Pay attention to a course of a curve from V/C = 0.707 (maximum of curves) up to V/C = 0.866. See chapter 5.2, figure 5.2.1. This speed range just is necessary on transient area, when the tangential velocity of an electron on a screw trajectory reaches speed of light and can not more be augmented. Therefore own the gravidynamic field of an electron does not grow any more, but sharply its weight is augmented at the expense of continued increase of progressive speed, therefore centrifugal effort, proportional square of speed, exceeds gravidynamic force, proportional speeds in the first degree. In outcome at further increase of progressive speed Mf and Zf decrease. At progressive speed of a particle, equal speed of light, its mass would become indefinitely large, that results in zero values Mf and Zf.
The relativistic atoms of hydrogen have a large penetrating power similarly to neutrons, but as against last are stable. The electron transition on miscellaneous energy levels for them is impossible, therefore radiation misses. To ionize relativistic atom of hydrogen it is possible only at relative movement of a proton and electron lengthwise axis for screw trajectory. The electrostatic bond energy is in this case peer , where r is determined by the formula (2.9.2).