Quite probably, and even for certain it is possible to assert, that in an introduced picture of "elementary" particles there are inaccuracy, as it was necessary to operate only with one equation with three unknowns, but the principle is clear: these particles represent a certain similarity of chemical combinations and number of such connections not limited. In the set up notions the objective properties of particles are stacked all without exception.
New physics tenders a simple picture of elementary particles. All of them at the end consist of an electronic neutrino and antineutrino. These base particles will forms fundamental stable particles (with antiparticles): remaining types a neutrino, electron, proton and photon. The stable particles will forms quasistable and unstable (resonances). The life time of quasistable particles makes from 900 sec for a free neutron till 10-20 sec for a -hyperon. The components of these particles are in the first quantum condition (have not an aliquot angular momentum), therefore they are comparative steady. Than less number of components, quasistable particle especially is steady. The presence of components capable of annihilation (for example, electron and positron) reduces a life time of a quasistable particle sharply. The resonances have a life time of the order of 10-23 sec. It is conditioned by that the components of unstable particles have an aliquot angular momentum, i.e. are in an exited state. In time 10-23 sec components pass in a ground state and the resonance is disintegrated on quasistable and, eventually, stable particles. On this basis the resonances can be considered as separate particles only conditionally. The condition any of a component of an unstable particle simultaneously is similar on condition of an exited electron in atom and on a quantum condition of planets of a solar System (see applicable chapter). It again demonstrates a surprising commonality of the laws at all levels of universe. The angular momentum of a component of a elementary particle is peer mCr. To increase an angular momentum twice, it is necessary to increase twice mass of a component, since the motion with speed of light to change is impossible. Also it is impossible to increase twice radius of orbit, since thus the gravidynamic interplay practically will vanish. Thus, if the quantum condition of an electron in the given resonance is equal 5, it means, that on orbit the electron is gone with mass in 5 times more by that, which one would be in the basic quantum condition (we shall designate such electron (5)e-). The life time of a resonance decreases with increase of number of its components and from a quantum condition of each component is weakly depends. Let's put some examples of a constitution of resonances. The resonance f2 has mass 1274 MeV and constitution (9)e+(9)e-. As the electron in a ground state on orbit has an angular momentum , MQN of this resonance will be equal 18, and mass: 18×70,03 = 1260 MeV. Missing 14 MeV are connected that at the given calculation we leave out amplification of gravidynamic interplay of components at the expense of their aliquot masses as a result of which radius of orbits slightly decreases, and mass is augmented for preservation of an angular momentum. Resonances : (6)e+(5)(5)(?), : (6)e-(5)(5)(?) and : (4)e+(4)e-(3)(3) have MQN equal 11 and mass: 11×70.03 = 770 MeV. The experimental value of their masses is equal 768 MeV. As the upper threshold for energy of a particle does not exist, we always shall open resonances with any masses and number them not limited. Here it is necessary to make one remark to address orthodox notions about a life time of elementary particles. It is considered, that the decay of quasistable particles is conditioned so-called electromagnetic and weak interaction, and decay of resonances - by a strong interaction. The logic suggests that all should be on the contrary - the stronger gravidynamic interplay, the more stable particle.
From the introduced schemes of a constitution of elementary particles it is visible, that the official classification of particles has in notion of new physics definite physical sense. The leptons consist of electrons and neutrino; by it assign a quantum number - leptonic charge. In mesons occur jointly present a particle and antiparticle of leptons, and in a structure of strange mesons there are pions. In baryons the presence of a proton (or antiproton) is necessary, therefore to baryons assign a quantum number - baryon charge. Apparently, that a leptonic and baryon charge are saved at transformations of particles, since describe fundamental stable particles, which one can occur or to fade only in a pair with the antiparticle. The so-called charge multiples (proton - neutron, pions etc.) concern to particles with identical value MQN, though they can have a miscellaneous constitution. For strange baryons a quantum number the strangeness corresponds to quantity of pions in a structure of a particle, for example for a -hyperon one pion (fig. 18.104.22.168) strangeness -1, for -hyperons strangeness too -1 and too in a structure one pion (fig. 22.214.171.124), for -hyperons strangeness -2 and in a structure of particles 2 pions (fig. 126.96.36.199), for -hyperon strangeness -3 and in a structure of this particle 3 pions (fig. 188.8.131.52). Thus, the customary particles enter in a structure strange; strange enter in a structure charmed, and charmed in a structure beautiful. Official physics does not know reasons of a genesis of quantum numbers of elementary particles. Modern quark model of mesons and baryons does not explain a genesis of quantum numbers. It does not give also values of masses of particles, though at definite a quark structure mass of particles should easily be determined.
Definition of mass of a elementary particle (in MeV) under the formula:
where N - the main quantum number (integers from 1 up to ) is only first nearing from the formula (5.4.4) at two suppositions: 1. Radius of orbit of a components particle is peer to radius of an electron (2.81785 fm). 2. The summary angular momentum (MQN) has the whole value. In real particles these suppositions are not exact, for example, radius of muons is less than radius of an electron and makes 2.8014 fm, therefore computational mass on (10.1.1) appears less experimental on 0,6 MeV at the expense of decreasing radius of orbit. Radius of orbit decreases because of gravidynamic attraction of a matter e-- or antimatter e+-. The matter and antimatter is weakly interacting inside elementary particles, therefore radius of orbit can be increased and the calculating value of a particle mass will become more experimental. For example, in radius of orbit makes 2.924 fm at the expense of weak of gravidynamic attraction of an electron both positron and the calculating value of mass exceeds experimental on 5.1 MeV. For charged pions radius of orbit 2.8277 fm at the expense of easing of connection e-- or e+-, therefore their computational mass on 0.5 MeV is more experimental, and the charged pions are more high-gravity neutral on 4.6 MeV. As the neutral kaons contain a charged pion, and the charged kaons instead of charged have a neutral pion, their masses are more on 4 MeV, instead of on 4.6 MeV at the expense of a weak bond e- - or e+ - (fig. 9.5.1). Updated MQN of particles has not the whole value because of presence components on orbit with value of an angular momentum not equal , for example /2 or /137.0391. If in MQN of muons we shall take into account an electronic neutrino or antineutrino with an angular momentum 0.0036, the difference between computational and experimental value of masses of muons will make any more 0.6 MeV, and 0.36 MeV, i.e. the deviation does not exceed 0,35 % even without the registration of interplay between an electron (positron) and muonic antineutrino (muonic neutrino). Among other things for many particles it is necessary to allow and electrostatic interplay components. It is well visible on an example of a figure (184.108.40.206): (1189 MeV), (1193 MeV) and (1197 MeV). The masses of these hyperons are augmented in parallel with increase of an electrostatic attraction of muons to a proton. Thus, the registration of effects of the second order allows finding more precise mass of any elementary particle. In connection with set up, it is possible to offer the table of masses of elementary particles which one they gain, moving on orbit in a structure of more composite particle.
Mass on orbit, MeV
0.255 for MQN
70.03 for MQN
35.015 for MQN
210.09 for MQN
Enters in "strange" particles
560.24 for MQN
567.70 for K0
Enters in "charmed" particles
Charmed a meson D
1925.8 for MQN
1930.9 for D0
Enters in "beautiful" particles
Using this table it is possible to update a constitution of "stable" elementary particles.
While there are absent of information, that the baryons as whole can move on orbit in a structure of other particles thus in products of decay there will be two protons, therefore structure of elementary particles does not differ by large variety components. Total mass of a elementary particle is approximately peer to the sum of masses components of average column of the table, (without the registration of a difference of gravidynamic interplay a matter - matter (antimatter - antimatter) and matter - antimatter and electrostatic interplay). Besides in a structure of any particle not much separate are watched components (which one can consist from several).
modern physics in a problem of the theory of elementary particles so has
complicated a problem, that its "achievements" are perceived by the
man having though a few of common sense, as solid delirium. Each particle
literally cries to the explorer about its composition - look on decomposition
reactions that were for me inside. But the orthodox obstinately negates the
apparent facts. Differently it is necessary to review fundamentals of a modern
physics (as a matter of fact transformed in religion). In this connection there
is a necessity to add to already described additional particles, by taking
advantage the data from Subatomic physics, Publishing House of the
Light meson . Its mass 548.8 MeV, MQN=8, computational mass on MQN 560.2 MeV, and under table 10.1.1 550.06 MeV. A structure e+e-. The very short life time is conditioned by presence of neutral pions in a structure of a meson both presence of an electron and positron jointly.
. Mass 1869.3 MeV, MQN= 26.5, computational mass on MQN 1855.8 MeV. A structure e+К0 , e-К+К0 , (1865.5 MeV under table 10.1.1)
D0. Mass 1864.5 MeV, MQN= 26.5 computational weights on MQN 1855.8 MeV. A structure e+К0 , e-К+К0 , (1860.9 MeV under table 10.1.1). The charged pion is more high-gravity neutral, therefore is more high-gravity D0 on 4.6 MeV (see about pions in a start of the chapter).
. Mass 1968.8 MeV, MQN= 28, computational mass on MQN 1960.8 MeV. A structure К+К0 (mass under table 10.1.1 1970.3 MeV).
. Mass 2110.3 MeV, MQN= 30, computational mass on MQN 2100.9 MeV. A structure К0К0 (mass under table 10.1.1 2109,1 MeV).
. Mass 5277.6 MeV, MQN=75, computational mass on MQN 5252.3 MeV. A structure K+D+ (mass under table 10.1.1 5273.6 MeV).
B0. Mass 5279.4 MeV, MQN= 75, computational mass on MQN 5252.3 MeV. A structure K+D+e-, K+D+e+ (mass under table 10.1.1 5278.2 MeV).
Charmed baryons. Here it is necessary to make the following remark. As in center of baryons there is a proton and consequently the baryons introduce a certain similarity of hydrogen-like atoms, formal MQN of a proton 938.27:70.03 = 13.4. Therefore formal counting of mass on MQN gives the overstated value of mass on 0.4×70.03 = 28 MeV. Mass of a proton we shall accept equal 938.27 MeV.
. Mass 2285.2 MeV, MQN= 32. A structure P+K+ (mass under table 10.1.1 2278.7 MeV).
. Mass 2453.0 MeV, MQN= 35, computational mass under table 10.1.1 2488.3 MeV. A structure P+K+.
. Mass 2453.2 MeV, MQN= 35, computational mass under table 10.1.1 2483.7 MeV. A structure P+K+.
. Mass 2452.7 MeV, MQN= 35, computational mass under table 10.1.1 2488.3 MeV. A structure P+K+.
All these baryons contain in the structure a pion and components , therefore in products of decay 100 % just of these particles are watched. Together with strongly overstated computational mass this fact indicates a constitution -baryons as a central nucleus around of which one the pion in the second orbital layer is gyrated. In this case orbital moment of a pion will be not , and /2 and the calculating value of mass will correspond to experimental value.
. Mass 2466.8 MeV, MQN= 35, computational mass under table 10.1.1 2483.7 MeV. A structure P+K0K0.
. Mass 2473.0 MeV, MQN= 35, computational mass under table 10.1.1 2488.3 MeV. A structure P+K0K0.
Concerning resonances I shall remind, that is similar, how the electron in atom passes from one excited level on another and it is required it to it on approximately 10-8 seconds, the exited components of a resonance shatters a resonance for one revolution on orbit and they need on it 10-23 seconds, therefore resonances can not be considered as full particles.
Thus, the spectrum of masses of elementary particles confirms inviolability of a principle of conservation of moment of momentum in a microcosmos, a consequent which one is originating mass.
The precise expression for calculation of a particle mass is grounded on the formulation of a principle of conservation of moment of momentum (S) taking into account that the components of a elementary particle move with light speed:
To receive value of mass in power units (MeV), it is necessary (10.1.2) to multiply on С2:
Electronic mass on MQN (S=/137.036): 70.03/137.036 = 0.51103 MeV
on "Subatomic physics". Publishing house of the
= 6.582122∙10-22 MeV∙sec
C = 2.997924∙108 m∙sec-1
re = 2.81794092∙10-15 m
Tabulated value me= 0.5109991 MeV
Electronic mass on (10.1.3): 0.510998968 MeV
Radius of a neutron (my data on a magnetic moment) rn= 0.986×10-15 m
Electronic mass on orbit 0.986×10-15 m on (10.1.3): 1.46041 MeV. On experimental data the neutron is more high-gravity than a proton on 1.29332 MeV. Radius of a neutron was counted on a magnetic moment of a neutron in the supposition dotty a neutrino which is forms an electron. As a matter of fact neutrino have the final sizes therefore driving on a circumference to a charged bead little bit greater radius for creation of the same magnetic field, as to a charged point. Therefore substantial radius of an electron, inside which one are a proton more counted, that results to overstate on 0.16709 MeV to value of electronic mass. Thus, on an example of calculation of masses of a neutron and electron is affirmed not only the technique of calculation of a spectrum of masses of particles, but also constitution of a neutron and error of official physics concerning an own angular momentum of an electron.
Here it is necessary to tell some words about increase of a life time of fast dissolving particles with increase of their running speed. Usually it is explained to that for them the flow of time changes. Further we shall see, that the time is absolute (more correctly, is container of events, not having any physical characteristics, as is not physical object). With ascending of speed, radius of a screw line of motion of free particles decreases that indicates increase of a gravidynamic field and strengthening of connections of a separate components particle. Some particles in such a way can be made stable, if they permanently will move with a high speed or will be "fixed", but in powerful external a gravidynamic field, i.e. deep potential well (neutrons in a nucleus). Apparently, that the change of time current can not a unstable particle make stable, and can only delay a decay time.
The strengthening of connections in gravidynamic systems visually is visible from a constitution of particles, which one contain a pion a life time which one in a free condition makes 8.4×10-17 sec (since an electron and a positron because of an electrostatic attraction destabilize each other on orbit), and in a structure of these particles (at motion of a pion almost with light speed) it any more less than 2.9×10-10 sec (-baryon). Thus, usage of a gravidynamic field is a powerful lever control by processes of decay of particles of any kind. Accelerating ions of radioactive atoms or neutral particles, it will be possible in some cases completely to prevent decay. As it is better for making, it will be clear from further. At all events, it is possible confidently to guess existence in space of far transuranium elements, specially on purlieu by the Universe, where the objects move with by circumlight speeds. Typical gravidynamic the objects can be watched and in an adjacent space, for example, short-period binary stars, pulsars.
a constitution of a neutron (фиг.220.127.116.11) with a
constitution of one of versions pion (фиг.9.3.2), we can assert,
that the connection with a proton will give a certain
similarity of a neutron or neutron in the pure state, and neutron represents a
variety of hyperon (фиг.18.104.22.168)
Thus, in due course, we can study nuclei of atoms inclusive instead of neutrons
For the greater clearness of this problem, it is necessary to allow, that at
connection of nucleons in a nucleus is allots on the average 7 MeV of energy on
one nucleon. It is quite enough of it not only for formation of pairs a
neutrino - antineutrino (see photon in the chapter about fundamental
particles), but also pairs an electron - positron ( mesons). As and
mesons can exist in versions (e+,) and
(e-,), in a
nucleus the formation of any known hyperons is possible. Nay, the simultaneous
emitting by some nuclei and radiation speaks
about a reality of existence -mesons in a nucleus. "The baryons with
strangeness, nonzero, are called as hyperons. The easiest hyperons (,, ,) are
long-lived particles and can go into a structure of atomic nuclei, forming
so-called hypernuclei". "Subatomic physics", Publishing House of
Когда говорят, что существование позитрона вытекает из уравнения Дирака – это неверно, т.к. представление о позитроне является результатом формального извлечения корня из релятивистского соотношения между энергией и импульсом свободной частицы: When speak, that the existence of a positron outflows from an equation of the Dirac is insecurely, since the notion about a positron grows out of a formal extraction of the root from a relativistic ratio between energy and impulse of a free particle:
whence (Physics of a microcosmos, "Soviet encyclopedia", М., 1980, стр 45-46). The speculations around of particles and antiparticles are connected just with formal existence of two values of the root with opposite signs. In classic physics the negative value of energy of a free particle is not sense, therefore it do not take into consideration, and in a microcosmos orthodox physics esteems also negative value of energy on that, ostensibly, basis, that the energy in a microcosmos varies by portions. Apparently, that two values of energy with opposite signs do not depend on that, discontinuous or continuously subduplicate varies, as the kinetic energy of a free microparticle can vary continuously. New physics gives very simple explanation to existence of antiparticles for particles of any kind: all particles consist of a neutrino and antineutrino, therefore symmetrical change by places a neutrino and antineutrino in structure of a particle gives an antiparticle.
To understand, what physical sense is masked in the formula (10.1.4), shall insert into it expression for a impulse:
where V - speed of a particle, m - relativistic mass, which one is determined by expression:
Just so receive (10.1.4).
Further it is required to us (10.1.6), squared:
Substituting (10.1.6) in (10.1.5) and obtained expression in (10.1.4), after some transformation we shall receive:
By substituting (10.1.7) in (10.1.8), we shall discover:
Formally extracting the root from (10.1.9), we shall receive:
On common sense the negative value of energy in (10.1.10) should be discarded, but let's go on a path perverters of physical sense and we shall look, that from this will be received. Apparently, that the square of speed of light can not be negative value, therefore, after extraction of the root relativistic mass becomes negative. It is possible only in the event if in (10.1.7) running speeds of a particle always more speed of light (such monsters are called "as tachyons"). Then the square of a relativistic particle mass becomes negative, and mass - imaginary. Thus "the tachyons" doubly have not any sense.
In summary it is necessary to point out, that here views of a modern physics are adduced very much schematically and are marked only by some strokes. Is not affected at all quark models of elementary particles, which one becomes complicated directly on eyes, indirectly indicating on falsehood of initial hypotheses. To avoid difficulties with statistics, it was necessary to quarks to assign "color". In the further set of quarks has appeared indispensable to extend, to enter "beautiful" quarks etc. "Term "charm", as well as other quantum values, is entered completely arbitrary; it is possible to tell about this value only that it "acts as charm", allowing to eliminate difficulties of the theory". (Underline mine once again to pay attention the reader to a methodology of a modern physics - V.K.). In this book to esteem all "achievements" of orthodox physics it is not sense to save a head of the reader. "The reason causing "reproduction" of kinds of quarks, is completely vague. Whether it is possible, that the quarks had some inner structure? At all events, their properties do not indicate at all it. The increase of number of quarks kinds represents one of greatest riddles standing today before physicists". (In this statement already is contained answer to a riddle - falsehood of a hypothesis of existence of quarks in that kind, as it is formulated - V.K.).
As a whole, the problem of elementary particles in a modern physics looks like this. "This problem is one of a major modern physics. The creation of the new theory is necessary, which one would explain an observed spectrum of masses of particles, interplay between them, life times and their other characteristics. The first theories (Heisenberg) have entailed the introducing of new physical ideas - non-linear equation, quantizing of space. It is possible, that its creation will need a radical breaking of modern notions" (N.I. Kariakin etc., Brief reference book on physics, "Higher School", М., 1962, page 498). In a modern physics of elementary particles sharply there is a problem, so-called, divergence - indefinitely large values of physical quantities. For example, for a dot electron the indefinitely large value for energy of a Coulomb field is received. To avoid divergences, is invented indeed cheat a method - quantizing of space - time. The sense it that is entered concept of minimum length l and, accordingly, minimum period l/c. It is made not under the requirements of common sense or any experimental data, and "to eliminate" divergences. Thus, space and time it appear "quantified".
Let's look, as from the point of view of new physics seems the effective section of dissipation of a dot particle on a solid bead of radius R, with which one the particle does not interact. Apparently, that for a particle with large energy (small radius r of a screw trajectory): =(R+r)2. Substituting in this formula value r=/2, where -wavelength de Broglie of a particle, after some transformations we shall discover:
This formula practically will be exact up to values 2R. At further increase of a wavelength of a particle in the target fall only the particles from a "diffraction" ring around of the target, as shown in a figure 10.2.1. Apparently, that the area of a "diffraction" ring S=4Rr or, substituting value r:
The effective section of dissipation will be in this case
where w1 - hit probability in the target with transversal and w2 - from a longitudinal direction of a screw trajectory of a particle. These probabilities practically are peer among themselves:
since at =2R a hit probability in the target of any photon, the axis of a screw trajectory which one lies in limits of a "diffraction" ring, is peer 1. By substituting (10.2.4) and (10.2.2) in (10.2.3) after some transformations we shall discover:
This formula is applicable at 2R. At an indefinitely large wavelength de Broglie the particle of the target more any "sees". The effective section of dissipation depending on a wavelength under the formulas (10.2.1) and (10.2.5) is shown on the graph (10.2.2) in dimensionless coordinates /R and /R2. The maximum section makes 4R2 and coincides conclusions of a quantum mechanics. At =0 sections of dissipation coincide with classic and makes R2.