10. In SUMMARY ABOUT ELEMENTARY PARTICLES
Quite
probably, and even for certain it is possible to assert, that in an introduced
picture of "elementary" particles there are inaccuracy, as it was
necessary to operate only with one equation with three unknowns, but the
principle is clear: these particles represent a certain similarity of chemical
combinations and number of such connections not limited. In the set up notions
the objective properties of particles are stacked all without exception.
New
physics tenders a simple picture of elementary particles. All of them at the
end consist of an electronic neutrino and antineutrino. These base particles
will forms fundamental stable particles (with antiparticles): remaining types a
neutrino, electron, proton and photon. The stable particles will forms
quasistable and unstable (resonances). The life time of quasistable particles
makes from 900 sec for a free neutron till 10^{20 }sec for a _{}hyperon.
The components of these particles are in the first quantum condition (have not
an aliquot angular momentum), therefore they are comparative steady. Than less
number of components, quasistable particle especially is steady. The presence
of components capable of annihilation (for example, electron and positron)
reduces a life time of a quasistable particle sharply. The resonances have a
life time of the order of 10^{23} sec. It is conditioned by that the
components of unstable particles have an aliquot angular momentum, i.e. are in
an exited state. In time 10^{23} sec components pass in a ground state
and the resonance is disintegrated on quasistable and, eventually, stable
particles. On this basis the resonances can be considered as separate particles
only conditionally. The condition any of a component of an unstable particle
simultaneously is similar on condition of an exited electron in atom and on a
quantum condition of planets of a solar System (see applicable chapter). It
again demonstrates a surprising commonality of the laws at all levels of
universe. The angular momentum of a component of a elementary particle is peer mCr.
To increase an angular momentum twice, it is necessary to increase twice mass
of a component, since the motion with speed of light to change is impossible.
Also it is impossible to increase twice radius of orbit, since thus the
gravidynamic interplay practically will vanish. Thus, if the quantum condition
of an electron in the given resonance is equal 5, it means, that on orbit the
electron is gone with mass in 5 times more by that, which one would be in the
basic quantum condition (we shall designate such electron (5)e^{}).
The life time of a resonance decreases with increase of number of its
components and from a quantum condition of each component is weakly depends.
Let's put some examples of a constitution of resonances. The resonance f_{2}
has mass 1274 MeV and constitution (9)e^{+}(9)e^{}.
As the electron in a ground state on orbit has an angular momentum _{}, MQN of this resonance will be equal 18, and mass: 18×70,03 = 1260 MeV.
Missing 14 MeV are connected that at the given calculation we leave out
amplification of gravidynamic interplay of components at the expense of
their aliquot masses as a result of which radius of orbits slightly decreases,
and mass is augmented for preservation of an angular momentum. Resonances
_{}:
(6)e^{+}(5)_{}(5)_{}(?)_{}, _{}: (6)e^{}(5)_{}(5)_{}(?)_{} and _{}: (4)e^{+}(4)e^{}(3)_{}(3)_{}
have MQN equal 11 and mass: 11×70.03 = 770 MeV. The experimental
value of their masses is equal 768 MeV. As the upper threshold for energy of a
particle does not exist, we always shall open resonances with any masses and
number them not limited. Here it is necessary to make one remark to address
orthodox notions about a life time of elementary particles. It is considered,
that the decay of quasistable particles is conditioned socalled
electromagnetic and weak interaction, and decay of resonances  by a strong
interaction. The logic suggests that all should be on the contrary  the stronger
gravidynamic interplay, the more stable particle.
From the
introduced schemes of a constitution of elementary particles it is visible,
that the official classification of particles has in notion of new physics
definite physical sense. The leptons consist of electrons and neutrino; by it
assign a quantum number  leptonic charge. In mesons occur jointly present a
particle and antiparticle of leptons, and in a structure of strange mesons
there are pions. In baryons the presence of a proton (or antiproton) is
necessary, therefore to baryons assign a quantum number  baryon charge.
Apparently, that a leptonic and baryon charge are saved at transformations of
particles, since describe fundamental stable particles, which one can occur or
to fade only in a pair with the antiparticle. The socalled charge multiples
(proton  neutron, pions etc.) concern to particles with identical value MQN,
though they can have a miscellaneous constitution. For strange baryons a
quantum number the strangeness corresponds to quantity of pions in a structure
of a particle, for example for a _{}hyperon one pion (fig. 9.6.2.1) strangeness
1, for _{}hyperons strangeness too 1 and too in a
structure one pion (fig. 9.6.3.1), for _{}hyperons
strangeness 2 and in a structure of particles 2 pions (fig. 9.6.4.1), for _{}hyperon
strangeness 3 and in a structure of this particle 3 pions (fig. 9.6.5.1).
Thus, the customary particles enter in a structure strange; strange enter in a
structure charmed, and charmed in a structure beautiful. Official physics does
not know reasons of a genesis of quantum numbers of elementary particles.
Modern quark model of mesons and baryons does not explain a genesis of quantum
numbers. It does not give also values of masses of particles, though at
definite a quark structure mass of particles should easily be determined.
10.1. Spectrum of masses
of elementary particles.
Definition of mass of a
elementary particle (in MeV) under the formula:
m=70.03∙N
(10.1.1),
where N  the
main quantum number (integers from 1 up to _{}) is only first nearing
from the formula (5.4.4) at two suppositions: 1. Radius of orbit of a
components particle is peer to radius of an electron (2.81785 fm). 2. The
summary angular momentum (MQN) has the whole value. In real particles these
suppositions are not exact, for example, radius of muons is less than radius of
an electron and makes 2.8014 fm, therefore computational mass on (10.1.1)
appears less experimental on 0,6 MeV at the expense of decreasing radius of
orbit. Radius of orbit decreases because of gravidynamic attraction of a matter
e^{}_{ }or antimatter e^{+}_{}. The
matter and antimatter is weakly interacting inside elementary particles,
therefore radius of orbit can be increased and the calculating value of a
particle mass will become more experimental. For example, in _{} radius
of orbit makes 2.924 fm at the expense of weak of gravidynamic attraction of an
electron both positron and the calculating value of mass exceeds experimental
on 5.1 MeV. For charged pions radius of orbit 2.8277 fm at the expense of
easing of connection e^{}_{} or e^{+}_{},
therefore their computational mass on 0.5 MeV is more experimental, and the
charged pions are more highgravity neutral on 4.6 MeV. As the neutral kaons
contain a charged pion, and the charged kaons instead of charged have a neutral
pion, their masses are more on 4 MeV, instead of on 4.6 MeV at the expense of a
weak bond e^{}  _{} or e^{+}  _{} (fig.
9.5.1). Updated MQN of particles has not the whole value because of presence
components on orbit with value of an angular momentum not equal _{}, for example _{}/2 or _{}/137.0391. If in MQN of muons we shall take into
account an electronic neutrino or antineutrino with an angular momentum 0.0036_{}, the difference between computational and experimental
value of masses of muons will make any more 0.6 MeV, and 0.36 MeV, i.e. the
deviation does not exceed 0,35 % even without the registration of interplay
between an electron (positron) and muonic antineutrino (muonic neutrino). Among
other things for many particles it is necessary to allow and electrostatic
interplay components. It is well visible on an example of a figure (9.6.3.1): _{}(1189
MeV), _{}(1193
MeV) and _{}(1197 MeV). The masses of these hyperons are
augmented in parallel with increase of an electrostatic attraction of muons to
a proton. Thus, the registration of effects of the second order allows finding
more precise mass of any elementary particle. In connection with set up, it is
possible to offer the table of masses of elementary particles which one they
gain, moving on orbit in a structure of more composite particle.
Table 10.1.1
Particle 
Mass on orbit, MeV 
Remark 
Electronic neutrino 
0.255 for MQN 
 
Electron (positron) 
70.03 for MQN 
 
Muonic neutrino 
35.015 for MQN 
 
Pion 
210.09 for MQN 205.00 for _{} 209.60 for _{} 
Enters in "strange" particles 
Kaon 
560.24 for MQN 567.70 for K^{0} 563.68 for _{} 
Enters in "charmed" particles 
Charmed a meson D 
1925.8 for MQN 1930.9 for D^{0} 1935.5 for _{} 
Enters in "beautiful" particles 
Using
this table it is possible to update a constitution of "stable"
elementary particles.
While
there are absent of information, that the baryons as whole can move on orbit in
a structure of other particles thus in products of decay there will be two
protons, therefore structure of elementary particles does not differ by large
variety components. Total mass of a elementary particle is approximately peer
to the sum of masses components of average column of the table, (without the
registration of a difference of gravidynamic interplay a matter  matter
(antimatter  antimatter) and matter  antimatter and electrostatic interplay).
Besides in a structure of any particle not much separate are watched components
(which one can consist from several).
The
modern physics in a problem of the theory of elementary particles so has
complicated a problem, that its "achievements" are perceived by the
man having though a few of common sense, as solid delirium. Each particle
literally cries to the explorer about its composition  look on decomposition
reactions that were for me inside. But the orthodox obstinately negates the
apparent facts. Differently it is necessary to review fundamentals of a modern
physics (as a matter of fact transformed in religion). In this connection there
is a necessity to add to already described additional particles, by taking
advantage the data from Subatomic physics, Publishing House of the
Light
meson _{}. Its
mass 548.8 MeV, MQN=8, computational mass on MQN 560.2 MeV, and under table
10.1.1 550.06 MeV. A structure _{}e^{+}e^{}. The
very short life time is conditioned by presence of neutral pions in a structure
of a meson both presence of an electron and positron jointly.
Charmed
mesons.
_{}. Mass 1869.3 MeV, MQN=
26.5, computational mass on MQN 1855.8 MeV. A structure _{}e^{+}_{}К^{0 }_{}, _{}e^{}К^{+}К^{0 }_{}, (1865.5 MeV under
table 10.1.1)
D^{0}.
Mass 1864.5 MeV, MQN= 26.5 computational weights on MQN 1855.8 MeV. A structure
_{}e^{+}_{}К^{0 }_{}, _{}e^{}К^{+}К^{0 }_{}, (1860.9 MeV under
table 10.1.1). The charged pion is more highgravity neutral, therefore _{} is
more highgravity D^{0} on 4.6 MeV (see about pions in a start of the
chapter).
_{}. Mass 1968.8 MeV, MQN= 28,
computational mass on MQN 1960.8 MeV. A structure К^{+}_{}К^{0 }_{}_{} (mass under table 10.1.1
1970.3 MeV).
_{}. Mass 2110.3 MeV, MQN= 30,
computational mass on MQN 2100.9 MeV. A structure _{}К^{0}К^{0 }_{} (mass under table
10.1.1 2109,1 MeV).
Bmesons
(beautiful).
_{}. Mass 5277.6 MeV,
MQN=75, computational mass on MQN 5252.3 MeV. A structure K^{+}_{}D^{+}_{}_{} (mass
under table 10.1.1 5273.6 MeV).
B^{0}.
Mass 5279.4 MeV, MQN= 75, computational mass on MQN 5252.3 MeV. A structure K^{+}_{}D^{+}_{}e^{}_{}, K^{+}_{}D^{+}_{}e^{+}_{}
(mass under table 10.1.1 5278.2 MeV).
Charmed
baryons.
Here it is necessary to make the following remark. As in center of baryons
there is a proton and consequently the baryons introduce a certain similarity
of hydrogenlike atoms, formal MQN of a proton 938.27:70.03 = 13.4. Therefore
formal counting of mass on MQN gives the overstated value of mass on 0.4×70.03 = 28 MeV. Mass of
a proton we shall accept equal 938.27 MeV.
_{}. Mass 2285.2 MeV, MQN= 32. A
structure P^{+}K^{+}_{} (mass under table
10.1.1 2278.7 MeV).
_{}. Mass 2453.0 MeV, MQN= 35,
computational mass under table 10.1.1 2488.3 MeV. A structure P^{+}K^{+}_{}.
_{}. Mass 2453.2 MeV, MQN= 35,
computational mass under table 10.1.1 2483.7 MeV. A structure P^{+}K^{+}_{}.
_{}. Mass 2452.7 MeV, MQN= 35,
computational mass under table 10.1.1 2488.3 MeV. A structure P^{+}K^{+}_{}.
All these
baryons contain in the structure a pion and components _{}, therefore in products of decay 100 % just of these
particles are watched. Together with strongly overstated computational mass
this fact indicates a constitution _{}baryons as a central
nucleus around of which one the pion in the second orbital layer is gyrated. In
this case orbital moment of a pion will be not _{}, and _{}/2 and the calculating
value of mass will correspond to experimental value.
_{}. Mass 2466.8 MeV, MQN= 35,
computational mass under table 10.1.1 2483.7 MeV. A structure P^{+}K^{0}K^{0}_{}.
_{}. Mass 2473.0 MeV, MQN= 35,
computational mass under table 10.1.1 2488.3 MeV. A structure P^{+}K^{0}K^{0}_{}.
Concerning
resonances I shall remind, that is similar, how the electron in atom passes
from one excited level on another and it is required it to it on approximately
10^{8} seconds, the exited components of a resonance shatters a
resonance for one revolution on orbit and they need on it 10^{23}
seconds, therefore resonances can not be considered as full particles.
Thus, the
spectrum of masses of elementary particles confirms inviolability of a
principle of conservation of moment of momentum in a microcosmos, a consequent
which one is originating mass.
The
precise expression for calculation of a particle mass is grounded on the
formulation of a principle of conservation of moment of momentum (S)
taking into account that the components of a elementary particle move with
light speed:
m=S/Сr
(10.1.2).
To
receive value of mass in power units (MeV), it is necessary (10.1.2) to
multiply on С^{2}:
m=SС/r
(10.1.3).
Electronic
mass on MQN (S=_{}/137.036): 70.03/137.036
= 0.51103 MeV
The data
on "Subatomic physics". Publishing house of the
_{} = 6.582122∙10^{22}
MeV∙sec
_{} =
1/137.0359895=0.00729735308
C = 2.997924∙10^{8}
m∙sec^{1}
r_{e
}=
2.81794092∙10^{15} m
Tabulated
value m_{e}= 0.5109991 MeV
Electronic
mass on (10.1.3): 0.510998968 MeV
Radius of
a neutron (my data on a magnetic moment) r_{n}= 0.986×10^{15} m
Electronic
mass on orbit 0.986×10^{15} m on (10.1.3): 1.46041 MeV. On
experimental data the neutron is more highgravity than a proton on 1.29332
MeV. Radius of a neutron was counted on a magnetic moment of a neutron in the
supposition dotty a neutrino which is forms an electron. As a matter of fact
neutrino have the final sizes therefore driving on a circumference to a charged
bead little bit greater radius for creation of the same magnetic field, as to a
charged point. Therefore substantial radius of an electron, inside which one
are a proton more counted, that results to overstate on 0.16709 MeV to value of
electronic mass. Thus, on an example of calculation of masses of a neutron and
electron is affirmed not only the technique of calculation of a spectrum of
masses of particles, but also constitution of a neutron and error of official
physics concerning an own angular momentum of an electron.
Here it
is necessary to tell some words about increase of a life time of fast
dissolving particles with increase of their running speed. Usually it is
explained to that for them the flow of time changes. Further we shall see, that
the time is absolute (more correctly, is container of events, not having any
physical characteristics, as is not physical object). With ascending of speed,
radius of a screw line of motion of free particles decreases that indicates
increase of a gravidynamic field and strengthening of connections of a
separate components particle. Some particles in such a way can be made stable,
if they permanently will move with a high speed or will be "fixed",
but in powerful external a gravidynamic field,
i.e. deep potential well (neutrons in a nucleus). Apparently, that the change
of time current can not a unstable particle
make stable, and can only delay a decay time.
The
strengthening of connections in gravidynamic systems visually is visible from a
constitution of particles, which one contain a pion _{} a life time
which one in a free condition makes 8.4×10^{17} sec
(since an electron and a positron because of an electrostatic attraction
destabilize each other on orbit), and in a structure of these particles (at
motion of a pion _{} almost with light speed) it any more
less than 2.9×10^{10} sec (_{}baryon). Thus, usage of a
gravidynamic field is a powerful lever control by processes of decay of
particles of any kind. Accelerating ions of radioactive atoms or neutral
particles, it will be possible in some cases completely to prevent decay. As it
is better for making, it will be clear from further. At all events, it is
possible confidently to guess existence in space of far transuranium elements,
specially on purlieu by the Universe, where the objects move with by
circumlight speeds. Typical gravidynamic the objects can be watched and in an
adjacent space, for example, shortperiod binary stars, pulsars.
Comparing
a constitution of a neutron (фиг.9.6.1.1) with a
constitution of one of versions _{} pion (фиг.9.3.2), we can assert,
that the connection _{} with a proton will give a certain
similarity of a neutron or neutron in the pure state, and neutron represents a
variety of _{} hyperon (фиг.9.6.2.1)
or _{} hyperon.
Thus, in due course, we can study nuclei of atoms inclusive instead of neutrons
_{} or
_{} hyperons.
For the greater clearness of this problem, it is necessary to allow, that at
connection of nucleons in a nucleus is allots on the average 7 MeV of energy on
one nucleon. It is quite enough of it not only for formation of pairs a
neutrino  antineutrino (see photon in the chapter about fundamental
particles), but also pairs an electron  positron (_{} mesons). As _{} and
_{} the
mesons can exist in versions _{} (e^{+},_{}) and
_{} (e^{},_{}), in a
nucleus the formation of any known hyperons is possible. Nay, the simultaneous
emitting by some nuclei _{} and _{} radiation speaks
about a reality of existence _{}mesons in a nucleus. "The baryons with
strangeness, nonzero, are called as hyperons. The easiest hyperons (_{},_{}, _{},_{}) are
longlived particles and can go into a structure of atomic nuclei, forming
socalled hypernuclei". "Subatomic physics", Publishing House of
the
Когда говорят, что
существование позитрона вытекает из уравнения Дирака – это
неверно, т.к. представление о позитроне является результатом формального извлечения корня из релятивистского соотношения между энергией и импульсом свободной частицы: When speak, that the
existence of a positron outflows from an equation of the Dirac is insecurely,
since the notion about a positron grows out of a formal extraction of the root
from a relativistic ratio between energy and impulse of a free particle:
(10.1.4),
whence _{} (Physics of a microcosmos, "Soviet
encyclopedia", М., 1980, стр 4546). The speculations around of particles and antiparticles are
connected just with formal existence of two values of the root with opposite
signs. In classic physics the negative value of energy of a free particle is
not sense, therefore it do not take into consideration, and in a microcosmos
orthodox physics esteems also negative value of energy on that, ostensibly,
basis, that the energy in a microcosmos varies by portions. Apparently, that
two values of energy with opposite signs do not depend on that, discontinuous
or continuously subduplicate varies, as the kinetic energy of a free
microparticle can vary continuously. New physics gives very simple explanation
to existence of antiparticles for particles of any kind: all particles consist
of a neutrino and antineutrino, therefore symmetrical change by places a
neutrino and antineutrino in structure of a particle gives an antiparticle.
To
understand, what physical sense is masked in the formula (10.1.4), shall insert
into it expression for a impulse:
(10.1.5),
where V
 speed of a particle, m  relativistic mass, which one is determined by
expression:
(10.1.6).
Just so
receive (10.1.4).
Further
it is required to us (10.1.6), squared:
_{}
(10.1.7).
Substituting
(10.1.6) in (10.1.5) and obtained expression in (10.1.4), after some
transformation we shall receive:
(10.1.8).
By
substituting (10.1.7) in (10.1.8), we shall discover:
(10.1.9).
Formally
extracting the root from (10.1.9), we shall receive:
(10.1.10).
On common
sense the negative value of energy in (10.1.10) should be discarded, but let's
go on a path perverters of physical sense and we shall look, that from this
will be received. Apparently, that the square of speed of light can not be
negative value, therefore, after extraction of the root relativistic mass becomes
negative. It is possible only in the event if in (10.1.7) running speeds of a
particle always more speed of light (such monsters are called "as
tachyons"). Then the square of a relativistic particle mass becomes
negative, and mass  imaginary. Thus "the tachyons" doubly have not
any sense.
In
summary it is necessary to point out, that here views of a modern physics are
adduced very much schematically and are marked only by some strokes. Is not
affected at all quark models of elementary particles, which one becomes
complicated directly on eyes, indirectly indicating on falsehood of initial
hypotheses. To avoid difficulties with statistics, it was necessary to quarks
to assign "color". In the further set of quarks has appeared
indispensable to extend, to enter "beautiful" quarks etc. "Term
"charm", as well as other quantum values, is entered completely
arbitrary; it is possible to tell about this value only that it "acts as
charm", allowing to eliminate difficulties of the theory".
(Underline mine once again to pay attention the reader to a methodology of a
modern physics  V.K.). In this book to esteem all "achievements" of
orthodox physics it is not sense to save a head of the reader. "The reason
causing "reproduction" of kinds of quarks, is completely vague.
Whether it is possible, that the quarks had some inner structure? At all
events, their properties do not indicate at all it. The increase of number of
quarks kinds represents one of greatest riddles standing today before
physicists". (In this statement already is contained answer to a riddle 
falsehood of a hypothesis of existence of quarks in that kind, as it is
formulated  V.K.).
As a
whole, the problem of elementary particles in a modern physics looks like this.
"This problem is one of a major modern physics. The creation of the new
theory is necessary, which one would explain an observed spectrum of masses of
particles, interplay between them, life times and their other characteristics.
The first theories (Heisenberg) have entailed the introducing of new physical
ideas  nonlinear equation, quantizing of space. It is possible, that its
creation will need a radical breaking of modern notions" (N.I. Kariakin
etc., Brief reference book on physics, "Higher School", М., 1962, page 498). In a modern physics of elementary particles sharply
there is a problem, socalled, divergence  indefinitely large values of
physical quantities. For example, for a dot electron the indefinitely large
value for energy of a Coulomb field is received. To avoid divergences, is
invented indeed cheat a method  quantizing of space  time. The sense it that
is entered concept of minimum length l and, accordingly, minimum period l/c.
It is made not under the requirements of common sense or any experimental data,
and "to eliminate" divergences. Thus, space and time it appear
"quantified".
10.2. Dissipation of
particles
Let's
look, as from the point of view of new physics seems the effective
section of dissipation of a dot particle on a solid bead of radius R, with
which one the particle does not interact. Apparently, that for a particle with
large energy (small radius r of a screw trajectory): _{}=_{}(R+r)^{2}.
Substituting in this formula value r=_{}/2_{},
where _{}wavelength de Broglie of a particle,
after some transformations we shall discover:
_{}
(10.2.1).
This
formula practically will be exact up to values _{}2_{}R. At further
increase of a wavelength of a particle in the target fall only the particles
from a "diffraction" ring around of the target, as shown in a figure
10.2.1. Apparently, that the area of a "diffraction" ring S=4_{}Rr
or, substituting value r:
S=2R_{}
(10.2.2).
The
effective section of dissipation will be in this case



_{}=Sw_{1}w_{2}
(10.2.3),
where w_{1}
 hit probability in the target with transversal and w_{2} 
from a longitudinal direction of a screw trajectory of a particle. These
probabilities practically are peer among themselves:
w=2_{}R/_{}
(10.2.4),
since at _{}=2_{}R
a hit probability in the target of any photon, the axis of a screw trajectory
which one lies in limits of a "diffraction" ring, is peer 1. By
substituting (10.2.4) and (10.2.2) in (10.2.3) after some transformations we
shall discover:
_{}=8_{}^{2}R^{3}/_{}
(10.2.5).



This formula is applicable at _{}2_{}R.
At an indefinitely large wavelength de Broglie the particle of the target more
any "sees". The effective section of dissipation depending on a
wavelength under the formulas (10.2.1) and (10.2.5) is shown on the graph
(10.2.2) in dimensionless coordinates _{}/_{}R and _{}/_{}R^{2}.
The maximum section makes 4_{}R^{2} and coincides conclusions
of a quantum mechanics. At _{}=0 sections of dissipation coincide with
classic and makes _{}R^{2}.